Think about that your neighbor calls to ask a favor: May you please feed their pet rabbit some carrot slices? Simple sufficient, you’d suppose. You’ll be able to think about their kitchen, even if you happen to’ve by no means been there — carrots in a fridge, a drawer holding varied knives. It’s summary data: You don’t know what your neighbor’s carrots and knives seem like precisely, however you received’t take a spoon to a cucumber.

Synthetic intelligence packages can’t compete. What appears to you want a simple job is a big endeavor for present algorithms.

An AI-trained robotic can discover a specified knife and carrot hiding in a well-recognized kitchen, however in a distinct kitchen it should lack the summary expertise to succeed. “They don’t generalize to new environments,” mentioned Victor Zhong, a graduate pupil in laptop science on the College of Washington. The machine fails as a result of there’s merely an excessive amount of to study, and too huge an area to discover.

The issue is that these robots — and AI brokers generally — don’t have a basis of ideas to construct on. They don’t know what a knife or a carrot actually is, a lot much less learn how to open a drawer, select one and minimize slices. This limitation is due partly to the truth that many superior AI methods get skilled with a technique referred to as reinforcement studying that’s primarily self-education by way of trial and error. AI brokers skilled with reinforcement studying can execute the job they have been skilled to do very effectively, within the surroundings they have been skilled to do it in. However change the job or the surroundings, and these methods will typically fail.

To get round this limitation, laptop scientists have begun to show machines necessary ideas earlier than setting them unfastened. It’s like studying a handbook earlier than utilizing new software program: You possibly can attempt to discover with out it, however you’ll study far quicker with it. “Humans learn through a combination of both doing and reading,” mentioned Karthik Narasimhan, a pc scientist at Princeton College. “We want machines to do the same.”

New work from Zhong and others reveals that priming a studying mannequin on this method can supercharge studying in simulated environments, each on-line and in the actual world with robots. And it doesn’t simply make algorithms study quicker — it guides them towards expertise they’d in any other case by no means study. Researchers need these brokers to develop into generalists, able to studying something from chess to procuring to cleansing. And as demonstrations develop into extra sensible, scientists suppose this method may even change how people can work together with robots.

“It’s been a pretty big breakthrough,” mentioned Brian Ichter, a analysis scientist in robotics at Google. “It’s pretty unimaginable how far it’s come in a year and a half.”

Sparse Rewards

At first look, machine studying has already been remarkably profitable. Most fashions sometimes use reinforcement studying, the place algorithms study by getting rewards. They start completely ignorant, however trial and error ultimately turns into trial and triumph. Reinforcement studying brokers can simply grasp easy video games.

Take into account the online game Snake, the place gamers management a snake that grows longer because it eats digital apples. You need your snake to eat essentially the most apples, keep inside the boundaries and keep away from operating into its more and more cumbersome physique. Such clear proper and unsuitable outcomes give a well-rewarded machine agent optimistic suggestions, so sufficient makes an attempt can take it from “noob” to Excessive Rating.

However suppose the foundations change. Maybe the identical agent should play on a bigger grid and in three dimensions. Whereas a human participant may adapt rapidly, the machine can’t, due to two vital weaknesses. First, the bigger area means it takes longer for the snake to come across apples, and studying slows exponentially when rewards develop into sparse. Second, the brand new dimension offers a completely new expertise, and reinforcement studying struggles to generalize to new challenges.

Zhong says we don’t want to simply accept these obstacles. “Why is it that when we want to play chess” — one other sport that reinforcement studying has mastered — “we train a reinforcement learning agent from scratch?” Such approaches are inefficient. The agent wanders round aimlessly till it stumbles upon a great state of affairs, similar to a checkmate, and Zhong says it requires cautious human design to get the agent to know what it means for a state of affairs to be good. “Why do we have to do this when we already have so many books on how to play chess?”

Partly, it’s as a result of machines have struggled to know human language and decipher pictures within the first place. For a robotic to finish vision-based duties like discovering and slicing carrots, for instance, it should know what a carrot is — the picture of a factor have to be “grounded” in a extra elementary understanding of what that factor is. Till not too long ago, there was no great way of doing that, however a growth within the pace and scale of language and picture processing has made the brand new successes doable.

New pure language processing fashions permit machines to primarily study the which means behind phrases and sentences — to floor them in issues on this planet — fairly than simply retailer a easy (and restricted) which means like a digital dictionary.

Computer vision has seen an analogous digital explosion. Round 2009, ImageNet debuted as a database of annotated pictures for laptop imaginative and prescient analysis. Right this moment it hosts over 14 million pictures of objects and locations. And packages like OpenAI’s DALL·E generate new pictures upon command that look human-made, regardless of having no precise comparability to attract from.

It reveals how machines solely now have entry to sufficient on-line knowledge to essentially study concerning the world, in line with Anima Anandkumar, a pc scientist on the California Institute of Know-how and Nvidia. And it’s an indication that they’ll study from ideas as we do and use them for technology. “We are in such a great moment now,” she mentioned. “Because once we can get generation, there is so much more we can do.”

Gaming the System

Researchers like Zhong determined machines didn’t should embark on their explorations wholly uninformed anymore. Armed with refined language fashions, the researchers may add a pre-training step the place a program realized from on-line info earlier than its trials and errors.

To check the concept, he and his colleagues in contrast the pre-training to conventional reinforcement studying in 5 totally different game-like settings the place machine brokers interpreted language instructions to resolve issues. Every simulated surroundings challenged the machine agent uniquely. One requested the agent to govern objects in a 3D kitchen; one other required studying textual content to study a exact sequence of actions to battle monsters. However essentially the most difficult setting was an actual sport, the 35-year-old NetHack, the place the aim is to navigate a classy dungeon to retrieve an amulet.

For the easy settings, automated pre-training meant merely grounding the necessary ideas: This can be a carrot, that may be a monster. For NetHack, the agent skilled by watching people play, utilizing playthroughs uploaded to the web by human gamers. These playthroughs didn’t even should be that good — the agent solely wanted to construct instinct for a way people behave. The agent wasn’t meant to develop into an knowledgeable, only a common participant. It will construct instinct by watching — what would a human do in a given situation? The agent would determine what strikes have been profitable, formulating its personal carrot and stick.

“Through pre-training, we form good priors for how to associate language descriptions with things that are happening in the world,” Zhong mentioned. The agent would play higher from the beginning and study extra rapidly throughout subsequent reinforcement studying.

In consequence, the pre-trained agent did outperform the historically skilled one. “We get gains across the board in all five of these environments,” Zhong mentioned. Easier settings solely confirmed a slight edge, however in NetHack’s difficult dungeons, the agent realized many instances quicker and reached a ability stage that the basic method couldn’t. “You might be getting a 10x performance because if you don’t do this, then you just don’t learn a good policy,” he mentioned.

“These generalist agents are a big leap from what standard reinforcement learning does,” Anandkumar mentioned.

Her workforce additionally pre-trains brokers to get them to study extra rapidly, reaching vital progress on the world’s bestselling online game, Minecraft. It’s often known as a “sandbox” sport, which means it provides gamers a nearly infinite area during which to work together and create new worlds. It’s futile to program a reward operate for hundreds of duties individually, so as an alternative the workforce’s mannequin (“MineDojo”) constructed its understanding of the sport by watching captioned playthrough movies. No have to codify good conduct.

“We are getting automated reward functions,” Anandkumar mentioned. “This is the first benchmark with thousands of tasks and the ability to do reinforcement learning with open-ended tasks specified through text prompts.”

Past Video games

Video games have been a good way to indicate that pre-training fashions may work, however they’re nonetheless simplified worlds. Coaching robots to deal with the actual world, the place the probabilities are virtually infinite, is far more durable. “We asked the question: Is there something in between?” Narasimhan mentioned. So he determined to do some on-line procuring.

His workforce created WebShop. “It’s basically like a shopping butler,” Narasimhan mentioned. Customers can say one thing like “Give me a Nike shoe that’s white and under $100, and I want the reviews to state that they’re very comfortable for toddlers,” and this system finds and buys the shoe.

As with Zhong’s and Anandkumar’s video games, WebShop developed an instinct by coaching with pictures and textual content, this time from Amazon pages. “Over time, it learns to understand the language and map it to actions it has to take on the website.”

At first look, a procuring butler could not appear that futuristic. However whereas a cutting-edge chatbot can hyperlink you to a desired sneaker, interactions like putting the order require an entirely totally different ability set. And although your bedside Alexa or Google Residence audio system can place orders, they depend on proprietary software program that carries out preordained duties. WebShop navigates the online the way in which folks do: by studying, typing and clicking.

“It’s a step closer toward general intelligence,” Narasimhan mentioned.

rn // Outline dataLayer and the gtag operate.rn window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer || [];rn operate gtag(){dataLayer.push(arguments);}rnrn // Default ad_storage to ‘denied’.rn gtag(‘consent’, ‘default’, {rn ‘ad_storage’: ‘denied’rn });rnu003c/script>rnu003c!– Google Tag Supervisor –>rnu003cscript>(operate(w,d,s,l,i){w[l]=w[l]||[];w[l].push({‘gtm.begin’:rnnew Date().getTime(),occasion:’gtm.js’});var f=d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0],rnj=d.createElement(s),dl=l!=’dataLayer’?’&l=”+l:”‘;j.async=true;j.src=rn’https://www.googletagmanager.com/gtm.js?id=’+i+dl;f.parentNode.insertBefore(j,f);rn})(window,doc,’script’,’dataLayer’,’GTM-KZGMXJ7′);u003c/script>rnu003c!– Finish Google Tag Supervisor –>rnu003c!– Google Tag Supervisor (noscript) –>rnu003cnoscript>u003ciframe src=”https://www.googletagmanager.com/ns.html?id=GTM-KZGMXJ7″rnheight=”0″ width=”0″ fashion=”display:none;visibility:hidden”>u003c/iframe>u003c/noscript>rnu003c!– Finish Google Tag Supervisor (noscript) –>rnu003cscript>rnfunction getCookie(title) {rn let worth = “; ” + doc.cookie;rn var elements = worth.cut up(“; ” + title + “=”);rn if (elements.size === 2) return elements.pop().cut up(“;”).shift();rn}rnrnif(getCookie(‘acceptedPolicy’)) {rn// google analyticsrn(operate(i,s,o,g,r,a,m))(window,doc,’script’,’https://www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js’,’ga’);rnga(‘create’, ‘UA-8526335-13’, ‘auto’);rnga(‘set’, ‘forceSSL’, true);rnga(‘require’, ‘displayfeatures’);rnga(‘ship’,’pageview’);rnrn// fb pixelrn!operate(f,b,e,v,n,t,s)rn{if(f.fbq)return;n=f.fbq=operate()rn{n.callMethod? n.callMethod.apply(n,arguments):n.queue.push(arguments)}rn;rnif(!f._fbq)f._fbq=n;n.push=n;n.loaded=!0;n.model=’2.0′;rnn.queue=[];t=b.createElement(e);t.async=!0;rnt.src=v;s=b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];rns.parentNode.insertBefore(t,s)}(window,doc,’script’,rn’https://join.fb.web/en_US/fbevents.js’);rnfbq(‘init’, ‘190747804793608’); rnfbq(‘observe’, ‘PageView’);rnrn// chartbeatrnvar _sf_async_config = { uid: 65564, area: ‘quantamagazine.org’, useCanonical: true };(operate() {operate loadChartbeat(){ window._sf_endpt = (new Date()).getTime(); var e = doc.createElement(‘script’); e.setAttribute(‘language’, ‘javascript’); e.setAttribute(‘sort’, ‘textual content/javascript’); e.setAttribute(‘src’,’//static.chartbeat.com/js/chartbeat.js’); doc.physique.appendChild(e); };var oldonload = window.onload;window.onload = (typeof window.onload != ‘operate’) ?loadChartbeat : operate(){ oldonload(); loadChartbeat(); };})();rnrn// parsleyrnconst head = doc.getElementsByTagName(‘head’)[0];rnconst parsleyScript = doc.createElement(“script”);rnparsleyScript.sort = “text/javascript”;rnparsleyScript.src = “//cdn.parsely.com/keys/quantamagazine.org/p.js”;rnparsleyScript.id = “parsley-cfg”;rn// finish parsleyrnrn//smartlookrn window.smartlook||(operate(d) {rn var o=smartlook=operate(){ o.api.push(arguments)},h=d.getElementsByTagName(‘head’)[0];rn var c=d.createElement(‘script’);o.api=new Array();c.async=true;c.sort=”text/javascript”;rn c.charset=”utf-8″;c.src=”https://rec.smartlook.com/recorder.js”;h.appendChild(c);rn })(doc);rn smartlook(‘init’, ‘3bac9c73fbc7f7f1c527d035a117e2b66f7c3e30’);rnrn// Google Advertisements conversionsrn window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer || [];rn operate gtag(){dataLayer.push(arguments);}rn gtag(‘js’, new Date());rnrn gtag(‘config’, ‘AW-10788252298′);rnrn} else {rn(operate(i,s,o,g,r,a,m))(window,doc,’script’,’https://www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js’,’ga’);rnga(‘create’, ‘UA-8526335-13’, { storage: ‘none’ });rnga(‘set’, ‘anonymizeIp’, true);rnga(‘set’, ‘forceSSL’, true);rnga(‘require’, ‘displayfeatures’);rnga(‘ship’,’pageview’);rn}rnu003c/script>rn”,”google_analytics”:null,”tracking_scripts_no_cookie”:null,”google_analytics_no_cookie”:null,”popular_searches”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.popular_searches.0″,”typename”:”PopularSearch”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.popular_searches.1″,”typename”:”PopularSearch”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.popular_searches.2″,”typename”:”PopularSearch”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.popular_searches.3″,”typename”:”PopularSearch”}],”search_topics”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.0″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.1″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.2″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.3″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.4″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.5″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.6″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.7″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_topics.8″,”typename”:”SearchTopic”}],”search_sections”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_sections.0″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_sections.1″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_sections.2″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.search_sections.3″,”typename”:”Term”}],”search_authors”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:38171″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:28087″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:29794″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:39302″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:56″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:47249″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:29458″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:73″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:39164″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:59″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:8728″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:11648″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:42689″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:95″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:15493″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:450″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:36490″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:16315″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:2752″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:15492″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:68″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:62″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:13684″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:13691″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:50″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:15142″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:8084″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:742″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:11543″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:57″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:7262″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:70″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:19918″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:13695″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:32676″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:13724″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:26310″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:30207″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:19266″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:13251″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:17000″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:17149″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:5279″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:58″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:32612″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:27534″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:25173″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:64″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:47″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:14784″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:98″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:5830″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:6793″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:75″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:52″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:69″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:77″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:19092″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:20557″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:66″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:46418″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:85″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:37141″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:44758″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:49403″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:12170″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:32″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:51″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:44787″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:50541″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:72″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:16475″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:91″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:10351″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:31716″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:1241″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:8463″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:49″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:16815″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:67″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:37462″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:87″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:36139″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:20556″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:90″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:39551″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:27374″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:40″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:47633″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:45758″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:38413″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:12570″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:38699″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:23451″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:79″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:38″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:47180″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:60″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:2333″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:3569″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:414″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:20495″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:47830″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:17147″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:30953″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:32437″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:38705″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:40613″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:7186″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:14093″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:34″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:23″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:74″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:19093″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:1472″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:6476″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:42264″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:10″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:37605″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:43298″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:37428″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:19962″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:24″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:1816″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:84″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:55″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:31″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:24011″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:100″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:2784″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:26114″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:9412″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:820″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:1666″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:20950″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:48″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:80″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:15681″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:24577″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:78″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:23845″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:83″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:35441″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:76″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:15680″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:7239″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:44197″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:65″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:5944″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:61″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:63″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:26311″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:71″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:17148″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:13356″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:17150″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:39768″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:2960″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:14785″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:3″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:54″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:88″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:12964″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:53″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:86″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:3244″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:89″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:15913″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:42263″,”typename”:”AuthorList”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”AuthorList:45757″,”typename”:”AuthorList”}],”address_to_editor”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.0″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.1″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.2″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.3″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.4″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.5″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.6″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.7″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.8″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.9″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.10″,”typename”:”Editor”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.options.acf.address_to_editor.11″,”typename”:”Editor”}]},”ROOT_QUERY.choices”:{“acf”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf”,”typename”:”ThemeOptions”},”__typename”:”Choices”},”ROOT_QUERY.getPostPageArchive({“slug”:”machines-learn-better-if-we-teach-them-the-basics-20230201″,”type”:””}).knowledge.0.acf”:{“custom_page_colors”:””,”page_accent_color”:null,”page_text_color”:null,”page_background_color”:null,”header_type”:”default”,”header_gradient_color”:null,”header_gradient_opacity”:null,”header_solid_colors”:””,”header_solid_primary_color”:null,”header_solid_secondary_color”:null,”header_solid_hover_color”:null,”header_transparent_colors”:null,”header_transparent_primary_color”:null,”header_transparent_secondary_color”:null,”header_transparent_hover_color”:null,”__typename”:”ACFFields”},”ROOT_QUERY.getPostPageArchive({“slug”:”machines-learn-better-if-we-teach-them-the-basics-20230201″,”type”:””}).knowledge.0″:{“acf”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.getPostPageArchive({“slug”:”machines-learn-better-if-we-teach-them-the-basics-20230201″,”type”:””}).knowledge.0.acf”,”typename”:”ACFFields”},”__typename”:”Publish”},”ROOT_QUERY.getPostPageArchive({“slug”:”machines-learn-better-if-we-teach-them-the-basics-20230201″,”type”:””})”:{“data”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.getPostPageArchive({“slug”:”machines-learn-better-if-we-teach-them-the-basics-20230201″,”type”:””}).data.0″,”typename”:”Post”}],”__typename”:”PostPageArchive”},”ROOT_QUERY.getPageMeta({“slug”:”machines-learn-better-if-we-teach-them-the-basics-20230201″,”type”:””})”:{“redirect_path”:null,”meta”:”u003cmeta title=”description” content material=”A wave of research improves reinforcement learning algorithms by pre-training them as if they were human.” />nu003cmeta property=”og:image” content material=”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Social.webp” />nu003cmeta property=”og:image:width” content material=”1200″ />nu003cmeta property=”og:image:height” content material=”630″ />nu003cmeta property=”og:image:alt” content material=”illustration of abstract, boxy-looking robot surrounded by household items such as a knife and a guitar, all of which have labels attached.” />nu003cmeta property=”og:locale” content material=”en_US” />nu003cmeta property=”og:type” content material=”article” />nu003cmeta property=”og:title” content material=”Machines Learn Better if We Teach Them the Basics | Quanta Magazine” />nu003cmeta property=”og:description” content material=”A wave of research improves reinforcement learning algorithms by pre-training them as if they were human.” />nu003cmeta property=”og:url” content material=”https://www.quantamagazine.org/machines-learn-better-if-we-teach-them-the-basics-20230201/” />nu003cmeta property=”og:site_name” content material=”Quanta Magazine” />nu003cmeta property=”og:updated_time” content material=”2023-02-01T20:22+00:00″ />nu003cmeta property=”article:publisher” content material=”https://www.facebook.com/QuantaNews” />nu003cmeta property=”fb:app_id” content material=”533309373681765″ />nu003cmeta property=”article:published_time” content material=”2023-02-01T15:34+00:00″ />nu003cmeta property=”article:modified_time” content material=”2023-02-01T20:22+00:00″ />nu003cmeta title=”twitter:card” content material=”summary_large_image” />nu003cmeta title=”twitter:site” content material=”@QuantaMagazine” />nu003cmeta title=”twitter:title” content material=”Machines Learn Better if We Teach Them the Basics | Quanta Magazine” />nu003cmeta title=”twitter:description” content material=”A wave of research improves reinforcement learning algorithms by pre-training them as if they were human.” />nu003cmeta title=”twitter:image” content material=”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Social.webp” />nu003cmeta title=”twitter:image:width” content material=”1200″ />nu003cmeta title=”twitter:image:height” content material=”630″ />nu003cmeta title=”twitter:image:alt” content material=”illustration of abstract, boxy-looking robot surrounded by household items such as a knife and a guitar, all of which have labels attached.” />nu003clink rel=”canonical” href=”https://www.quantamagazine.org/machines-learn-better-if-we-teach-them-the-basics-20230201/” />nu003cscript sort=”application/ld+json”>{“@context”:”https://schema.org”,”@type”:”BreadcrumbList”,”itemListElement”:[{“@type”:”ListItem”,”position”:1,”item”: Science and Math News”},{“@type”:”ListItem”,”position”:2,”item”:{“@id”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/computer-science/”,”name”:”Computer Science News, Interviews and Columns From Quanta Magazine”}},{“@type”:”ListItem”,”position”:3,”item”:{“@id”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/machines-learn-better-if-we-teach-them-the-basics-20230201/”,”name”:”Machines Learn Better if We Teach Them the Basics”}}]}u003c/script>n”,”__typename”:”PageMeta”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.social_media_links.0″:{“type”:”facebook”,”label”:”Facebook”,”url”:”https://www.facebook.com/QuantaNews”,”__typename”:”SocialMediaLink”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.social_media_links.1″:{“type”:”twitter”,”label”:”Twitter”,”url”:”https://twitter.com/QuantaMagazine”,”__typename”:”SocialMediaLink”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.social_media_links.2″:{“type”:”youtube”,”label”:”YouTube”,”url”:”https://www.youtube.com/c/QuantaScienceChannel”,”__typename”:”SocialMediaLink”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.social_media_links.3″:{“type”:”instagram”,”label”:”Instagram”,”url”:”https://instagram.com/quantamag”,”__typename”:”SocialMediaLink”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.social_media_links.4″:{“type”:”rss”,”label”:”RSS”,”url”:”https://api.quantamagazine.org/feed/”,”__typename”:”SocialMediaLink”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.0″:{“title”:”The Joy of Why”,”slug”:”the-joy-of-why”,”description”:”The mathematician and author Steven Strogatz interviews leading researchers about the great scientific and mathematical questions of our time.”,”featured_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.0.featured_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”square_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.0.square_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”subscribe_itunes_link”:”https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-joy-of-why/id1608948873″,”subscribe_spotify_link”:”https://open.spotify.com/show/2FoxHraQSKwxV2HgUfwLMp”,”subscribe_android_link”:”https://podcasts.google.com/feed/aHR0cHM6Ly9hcGkucXVhbnRhbWFnYXppbmUub3JnL2ZlZWQvdGhlLWpveS1vZi13aHk”,”subscribe_stitcher_link”:”https://www.stitcher.com/show/the-joy-of-why”,”__typename”:”Channel”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.0.featured_image”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1.jpg”,”width”:2560,”height”:1440,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.0.featured_image.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.0.featured_image.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1-520×293.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1-520×520.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1-1720×968.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1-768×432.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1.jpg”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.0.square_image”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600.jpg”,”width”:600,”height”:600,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.0.square_image.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.0.square_image.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600-520×520.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600-520×520.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600.jpg”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.1″:{“title”:”Quanta Science Podcast”,”slug”:”quanta-podcast”,”description”:”Susan Valot narrates in-depth news episodes based on Quanta Magazine’s articles about mathematics, physics, biology and computer science. “,”featured_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.1.featured_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”square_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.1.square_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”subscribe_itunes_link”:”https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/quanta-science-podcast/id1021340531?mt=2&ls=1″,”subscribe_spotify_link”:”https://open.spotify.com/show/7oKXOpbHzbICFUcJNbZ5wF?si=jdnj9sTHSD2bj4hDMFLKEA”,”subscribe_android_link”:”https://podcasts.google.com/feed/aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cucXVhbnRhbWFnYXppbmUub3JnL2ZlZWQvcG9kY2FzdC8″,”subscribe_stitcher_link”:”https://www.stitcher.com/podcast/quanta-magazine-2/quanta-magazine-podcast”,”__typename”:”Channel”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.1.featured_image”:{“alt”:”A video in which a metallic cube floats above a dark disk as liquid nitrogen evaporates around them”,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/09/Superconductivity-Mystery-Reolved_2880x1620_Lede-scaled.jpg”,”width”:2560,”height”:1440,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.1.featured_image.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.1.featured_image.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/09/Superconductivity-Mystery-Reolved_2880x1620_Lede-520×293.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/09/Superconductivity-Mystery-Reolved_2880x1620_Lede-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/09/Superconductivity-Mystery-Reolved_2880x1620_Lede-520×520.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/09/Superconductivity-Mystery-Reolved_2880x1620_Lede-1720×968.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/09/Superconductivity-Mystery-Reolved_2880x1620_Lede-768×432.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/09/Superconductivity-Mystery-Reolved_2880x1620_Lede-scaled.jpg”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.1.square_image”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000×3000.jpg”,”width”:3000,”height”:3000,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.1.square_image.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.1.square_image.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000×3000-520×520.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000×3000-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000×3000-520×520.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000×3000-1720×1720.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000×3000-768×768.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000×3000-2880×2880.jpg”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.2″:{“title”:”The Joy of x”,”slug”:”the-joy-of-x”,”description”:”The acclaimed mathematician and author Steven Strogatz interviews some of the world’s leading scientists about their lives and work.”,”featured_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.2.featured_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”square_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.2.square_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”subscribe_itunes_link”:”https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-joy-of-x/id1495067186″,”subscribe_spotify_link”:”https://open.spotify.com/show/5HcCtKPH5gnOjRiMtTdC07?si=lFzCzat9QfuPU3hWuYibxQ”,”subscribe_android_link”:”https://podcasts.google.com/feed/aHR0cHM6Ly9hcGkucXVhbnRhbWFnYXppbmUub3JnL2ZlZWQvdGhlLWpveS1vZi14Lw”,”subscribe_stitcher_link”:”https://www.stitcher.com/podcast/the-joy-of-x”,”__typename”:”Channel”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.2.featured_image”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1.jpg”,”width”:1920,”height”:1080,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.2.featured_image.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.2.featured_image.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-520×293.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-520×520.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-1720×968.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-768×432.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1.jpg”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.2.square_image”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600.jpg”,”width”:600,”height”:600,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.2.square_image.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.channels.2.square_image.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600-520×520.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600-520×520.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600.jpg”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.popular_searches.0″:{“term”:”math”,”label”:”Mathematics”,”__typename”:”PopularSearch”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.popular_searches.1″:{“term”:”physics”,”label”:”Physics”,”__typename”:”PopularSearch”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.popular_searches.2″:{“term”:”black holes”,”label”:”Black Holes”,”__typename”:”PopularSearch”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.popular_searches.3″:{“term”:”evolution”,”label”:”Evolution”,”__typename”:”PopularSearch”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.0″:{“type”:”Tag”,”label”:”Podcasts”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.0.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.0.class”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.0.tag”:{“name”:”Quanta Podcast”,”slug”:”quanta-podcast”,”term_id”:”552″,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.0.class”:{“title”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.1″:{“type”:”Tag”,”label”:”Columns”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.1.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.1.class”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.1.tag”:{“name”:”Quantized Columns”,”slug”:”quantized”,”term_id”:”551″,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.1.class”:{“title”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.2″:{“type”:”Series”,”label”:”Series”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.2.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.2.class”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.2.tag”:{“title”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.2.class”:{“title”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.3″:{“type”:”Category”,”label”:”Interviews”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.3.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.3.class”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.3.tag”:{“name”:”Q&A”,”slug”:”qa”,”term_id”:”567″,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.3.class”:{“name”:”Q&A”,”slug”:”qa”,”term_id”:”176″,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.4″:{“type”:”Category”,”label”:”Multimedia”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.4.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.4.class”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.4.tag”:{“title”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.4.class”:{“name”:”Multimedia”,”slug”:”multimedia”,”term_id”:”43″,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.5″:{“type”:”Category”,”label”:”Puzzles”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.5.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.5.class”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.5.tag”:{“name”:”puzzles”,”slug”:”puzzles”,”term_id”:”542″,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.5.class”:{“name”:”Puzzles”,”slug”:”puzzles”,”term_id”:”546″,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.6″:{“type”:”Category”,”label”:”Blog Posts”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.6.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.6.class”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.6.tag”:{“title”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.6.class”:{“name”:”Abstractions blog”,”slug”:”abstractions”,”term_id”:”619″,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.7″:{“type”:”news”,”label”:”News Articles”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.7.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.7.class”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.7.tag”:{“title”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.7.class”:{“title”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.8″:{“type”:”videos”,”label”:”Videos”,”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.8.tag”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.8.class”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.8.tag”:{“title”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_topics.8.class”:{“title”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_sections.0″:{“name”:”Mathematics”,”slug”:”mathematics”,”term_id”:”188″,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_sections.1″:{“name”:”Physics”,”slug”:”physics”,”term_id”:”189″,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_sections.2″:{“name”:”Biology”,”slug”:”biology”,”term_id”:”191″,”__typename”:”Term”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.search_sections.3″:{“name”:”Computer Science”,”slug”:”computer-science”,”term_id”:”190″,”__typename”:”Term”},”AuthorList:38171″:{“id”:”38171″,”name”:”Adam Becker”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:28087″:{“id”:”28087″,”name”:”Adam Mann”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:29794″:{“id”:”29794″,”name”:”Alex Kontorovich”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:39302″:{“id”:”39302″,”name”:”Alexander Hellemans”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:56″:{“id”:”56″,”name”:”Alla Katsnelson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:47249″:{“id”:”47249″,”name”:”Allison Parshall”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:29458″:{“id”:”29458″,”name”:”Allison Whitten”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:73″:{“id”:”73″,”name”:”Amanda Gefter”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:39164″:{“id”:”39164″,”name”:”Ana Kova”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:59″:{“id”:”59″,”name”:”Andreas von Bubnoff”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:8728″:{“id”:”8728″,”name”:”Anil Ananthaswamy”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:11648″:{“id”:”11648″,”name”:”Ann Finkbeiner”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:42689″:{“id”:”42689″,”name”:”Annie Melchor”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:95″:{“id”:”95″,”name”:”Ariel Bleicher”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:15493″:{“id”:”15493″,”name”:”Ashley Smart”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:450″:{“id”:”450″,”name”:”Ashley Yeager”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:36490″:{“id”:”36490″,”name”:”Ben Brubaker”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:16315″:{“id”:”16315″,”name”:”Bill Andrews”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:2752″:{“id”:”2752″,”name”:”Bob Henderson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:15492″:{“id”:”15492″,”name”:”Brendan Z. Foster”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:68″:{“id”:”68″,”name”:”Brooke Borel”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:62″:{“id”:”62″,”name”:”Carl Zimmer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:13684″:{“id”:”13684″,”name”:”Caroline Lee”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:13691″:{“id”:”13691″,”name”:”Caroline Lee”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:50″:{“id”:”50″,”name”:”Carrie Arnold”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:15142″:{“id”:”15142″,”name”:”Chanda Prescod-Weinstein”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:8084″:{“id”:”8084″,”name”:”Charlie Wood”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:742″:{“id”:”742″,”name”:”Christie Wilcox”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:11543″:{“id”:”11543″,”name”:”Claudia Dreifus”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:57″:{“id”:”57″,”name”:”Courtney Humphries”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:7262″:{“id”:”7262″,”name”:”Dalmeet Singh Chawla”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:70″:{“id”:”70″,”name”:”Dan Falk”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:19918″:{“id”:”19918″,”name”:”Dana Najjar”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:13695″:{“id”:”13695″,”name”:”Daniel Garisto”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:32676″:{“id”:”32676″,”name”:”Daniel S. Freed”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:13724″:{“id”:”13724″,”name”:”David H. Freedman”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:26310″:{“id”:”26310″,”name”:”David S. Richeson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:30207″:{“id”:”30207″,”name”:”David Tse”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:19266″:{“id”:”19266″,”name”:”Devin Powell”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:13251″:{“id”:”13251″,”name”:”Diana Kwon”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:17000″:{“id”:”17000″,”name”:”Elena Renken”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:17149″:{“id”:”17149″,”name”:”Elizabeth Landau”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:5279″:{“id”:”5279″,”name”:”Elizabeth Preston”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:58″:{“id”:”58″,”name”:”Elizabeth Svoboda”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:32612″:{“id”:”32612″,”name”:”Ellen Horne”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:27534″:{“id”:”27534″,”name”:”Emily Buder”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:25173″:{“id”:”25173″,”name”:”Emily Levesque”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:64″:{“id”:”64″,”name”:”Emily Singer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:47″:{“id”:”47″,”name”:”Erica Klarreich”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:14784″:{“id”:”14784″,”name”:”Erika K. Carlson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:98″:{“id”:”98″,”name”:”Esther Landhuis”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:5830″:{“id”:”5830″,”name”:”Eva Silverstein”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:6793″:{“id”:”6793″,”name”:”Evelyn Lamb”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:75″:{“id”:”75″,”name”:”Ferris Jabr”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:52″:{“id”:”52″,”name”:”Frank Wilczek”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:69″:{“id”:”69″,”name”:”Gabriel Popkin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:77″:{“id”:”77″,”name”:”George Musser”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:19092″:{“id”:”19092″,”name”:”Grant Sanderson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:20557″:{“id”:”20557″,”name”:”Howard Lee”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:66″:{“id”:”66″,”name”:”Ingrid Daubechies”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:46418″:{“id”:”46418″,”name”:”Ingrid Wickelgren”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:85″:{“id”:”85″,”name”:”Ivan Amato”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:37141″:{“id”:”37141″,”name”:”Jake Buehler”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:44758″:{“id”:”44758″,”name”:”James Dinneen”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:49403″:{“id”:”49403″,”name”:”James R. Riordon”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:12170″:{“id”:”12170″,”name”:”Janna Levin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:32″:{“id”:”32″,”name”:”Jeanette Kazmierczak”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:51″:{“id”:”51″,”name”:”Jennifer Ouellette”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:44787″:{“id”:”44787″,”name”:”Joanna Thompson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:50541″:{“id”:”50541″,”name”:”John M. Beggs”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:72″:{“id”:”72″,”name”:”John Pavlus”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:16475″:{“id”:”16475″,”name”:”John Preskill”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:91″:{“id”:”91″,”name”:”John Rennie”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:10351″:{“id”:”10351″,”name”:”Jonathan Lambert”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:31716″:{“id”:”31716″,”name”:”Jonathan O’Callaghan”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:1241″:{“id”:”1241″,”name”:”Jordana Cepelewicz”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:8463″:{“id”:”8463″,”name”:”Joshua Roebke”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:49″:{“id”:”49″,”name”:”Joshua Sokol”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:16815″:{“id”:”16815″,”name”:”jye”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:67″:{“id”:”67″,”name”:”K.C. Cole”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:37462″:{“id”:”37462″,”name”:”Karmela Padavic-Callaghan”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:87″:{“id”:”87″,”name”:”Kat McGowan”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:36139″:{“id”:”36139″,”name”:”Katarina Zimmer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:20556″:{“id”:”20556″,”name”:”Katherine Harmon Courage”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:90″:{“id”:”90″,”name”:”Katia Moskvitch”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:39551″:{“id”:”39551″,”name”:”Katie McCormick”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:27374″:{“id”:”27374″,”name”:”Kelsey Houston-Edwards”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:40″:{“id”:”40″,”name”:”Kevin Hartnett”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:47633″:{“id”:”47633″,”name”:”Konstantin Kakaes”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:45758″:{“id”:”45758″,”name”:”Kristina Armitage”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:38413″:{“id”:”38413″,”name”:”Lakshmi Chandrasekaran”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:12570″:{“id”:”12570″,”name”:”Laura Poppick”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:38699″:{“id”:”38699″,”name”:”Leila Sloman”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:23451″:{“id”:”23451″,”name”:”Liam Drew”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:79″:{“id”:”79″,”name”:”Liz Kruesi”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:38″:{“id”:”38″,”name”:”Lucy Reading-Ikkanda”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:47180″:{“id”:”47180″,”name”:”Lyndie Chiou”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:60″:{“id”:”60″,”name”:”Maggie McKee”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:2333″:{“id”:”2333″,”name”:”Mallory Locklear”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:3569″:{“id”:”3569″,”name”:”Marcus Woo”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:414″:{“id”:”414″,”name”:”Mark Kim-Mulgrew”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:20495″:{“id”:”20495″,”name”:”Matt Carlstrom”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:47830″:{“id”:”47830″,”name”:”Matt von Hippel”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:17147″:{“id”:”17147″,”name”:”Matthew Hutson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:30953″:{“id”:”30953″,”name”:”Max G. Levy”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:32437″:{“id”:”32437″,”name”:”Max Kozlov”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:38705″:{“id”:”38705″,”name”:”mcho”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:40613″:{“id”:”40613″,”name”:”Melanie Mitchell”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:7186″:{“id”:”7186″,”name”:”Melinda Wenner Moyer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:14093″:{“id”:”14093″,”name”:”Michael Harris”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:34″:{“id”:”34″,”name”:”Michael Kranz”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:23″:{“id”:”23″,”name”:”Michael Moyer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:74″:{“id”:”74″,”name”:”Michael Nielsen”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:19093″:{“id”:”19093″,”name”:”Michele Bannister”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:1472″:{“id”:”1472″,”name”:”Moira Chas”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:6476″:{“id”:”6476″,”name”:”Monique Brouillette”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:42264″:{“id”:”42264″,”name”:”Mordechai Rorvig”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:10″:{“id”:”10″,”name”:”Natalie Wolchover”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:37605″:{“id”:”37605″,”name”:”Nick Thieme”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:43298″:{“id”:”43298″,”name”:”Nicole Yunger Halpern”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:37428″:{“id”:”37428″,”name”:”Nima Arkani-Hamed”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:19962″:{“id”:”19962″,”name”:”Nola Taylor Redd”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:24″:{“id”:”24″,”name”:”Olena Shmahalo”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:1816″:{“id”:”1816″,”name”:”Patrick Honner”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:84″:{“id”:”84″,”name”:”Peter Byrne”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:55″:{“id”:”55″,”name”:”Philip Ball”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:31″:{“id”:”31″,”name”:”Pradeep Mutalik”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:24011″:{“id”:”24011″,”name”:”Puja Changoiwala”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:100″:{“id”:”100″,”name”:”Quanta Magazine”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:2784″:{“id”:”2784″,”name”:”R. Douglas Fields”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:26114″:{“id”:”26114″,”name”:”Rachel Crowell”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:9412″:{“id”:”9412″,”name”:”Raleigh McElvery”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:820″:{“id”:”820″,”name”:”Ramin Skibba”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:1666″:{“id”:”1666″,”name”:”Rebecca Boyle”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:20950″:{“id”:”20950″,”name”:”Richard Masland”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:48″:{“id”:”48″,”name”:”Robbert Dijkgraaf”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:80″:{“id”:”80″,”name”:”Roberta Kwok”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:15681″:{“id”:”15681″,”name”:”Robin George Andrews”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:24577″:{“id”:”24577″,”name”:”Rodrigo Pérez Ortega”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:78″:{“id”:”78″,”name”:”Sabine Hossenfelder”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:23845″:{“id”:”23845″,”name”:”Samuel Velasco”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:83″:{“id”:”83″,”name”:”Sarah Lewin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:35441″:{“id”:”35441″,”name”:”Scott Aaronson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:76″:{“id”:”76″,”name”:”Sean B. Carroll”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:15680″:{“id”:”15680″,”name”:”Sean Carroll”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:7239″:{“id”:”7239″,”name”:”Shannon Hall”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:44197″:{“id”:”44197″,”name”:”Sheon Han”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:65″:{“id”:”65″,”name”:”Siobhan Roberts”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:5944″:{“id”:”5944″,”name”:”Sophia Chen”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:61″:{“id”:”61″,”name”:”Steph Yin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:63″:{“id”:”63″,”name”:”Stephanie Bucklin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:26311″:{“id”:”26311″,”name”:”Stephanie DeMarco”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:71″:{“id”:”71″,”name”:”Stephen Ornes”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:17148″:{“id”:”17148″,”name”:”Steve Nadis”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:13356″:{“id”:”13356″,”name”:”Steven Strogatz”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:17150″:{“id”:”17150″,”name”:”Susan D’Agostino”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:39768″:{“id”:”39768″,”name”:”Tamar Lichter Blanks”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:2960″:{“id”:”2960″,”name”:”Tara C. Smith”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:14785″:{“id”:”14785″,”name”:”Thomas Lewton”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:3″:{“id”:”3″,”name”:”Thomas Lin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:54″:{“id”:”54″,”name”:”Tim Vernimmen”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:88″:{“id”:”88″,”name”:”Tom Siegfried”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:12964″:{“id”:”12964″,”name”:”Vanessa Schipani”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:53″:{“id”:”53″,”name”:”Veronique Greenwood”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:86″:{“id”:”86″,”name”:”Virginia Hughes”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:3244″:{“id”:”3244″,”name”:”Viviane Callier”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:89″:{“id”:”89″,”name”:”Wynne Parry”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:15913″:{“id”:”15913″,”name”:”XiaoZhi Lim”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:42263″:{“id”:”42263″,”name”:”Yasemin Saplakoglu”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”AuthorList:45757″:{“id”:”45757″,”name”:”Zack Savitsky”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.address_to_editor.0″:{“name”:”Bill Andrews – Senior CS Editor”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.address_to_editor.1″:{“name”:”Ben Brubaker – Staff CS Writer”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.address_to_editor.2″:{“name”:”Matt Carlstrom – Senior Engagement Editor”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.address_to_editor.3″:{“name”:”Jordana Cepelewicz – Senior Math Writer”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.address_to_editor.4″:{“name”:”Konstantin Kakaes – Senior Math Editor”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.address_to_editor.5″:{“name”:”Thomas Lin – Editor in Chief”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.address_to_editor.6″:{“name”:”Michael Moyer – Deputy Editor, Physics, Math, CS”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.address_to_editor.7″:{“name”:”John Rennie – Deputy Editor, Biology, Podcasts”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.address_to_editor.8″:{“name”:”Yasemin Saplakoglu – Staff Biology Writer”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.address_to_editor.9″:{“name”:”Samuel Velasco – Art Director”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.address_to_editor.10″:{“name”:”Natalie Wolchover – Senior Physics Editor”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”ROOT_QUERY.choices.acf.address_to_editor.11″:{“name”:”Charlie Wood – Staff Physics Writer”,”__typename”:”Editor”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”footer”}).objects.0″:{“title”:”About Quanta”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/about/”,”order”:1,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”footer”}).objects.1″:{“title”:”Archive”,”url”:”https://information.google.com/archive”,”order”:2,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”footer”}).objects.2″:{“title”:”Contact Us”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/contact-us/”,”order”:3,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”footer”}).objects.3″:{“title”:”Phrases & Circumstances”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/terms-conditions/”,”order”:4,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”footer”}).objects.4″:{“title”:”Privateness Coverage”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/privacy-policy/”,”order”:5,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”footer”}).objects.5″:{“title”:”Simons Basis”,”url”:”http://www.simonsfoundation.org”,”order”:6,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”footer”})”:{“objects”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”footer”}).items.0″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”footer”}).items.1″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”footer”}).items.2″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”footer”}).items.3″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”footer”}).items.4″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”footer”}).items.5″,”typename”:”MenuItem”}],”__typename”:”Menu”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”main-menu”}).objects.0″:{“title”:”Physics”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/physics/”,”order”:1,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”main-menu”}).objects.1″:{“title”:”Mathematics”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/arithmetic/”,”order”:2,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”main-menu”}).objects.2″:{“title”:”Biology”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/biology/”,”order”:3,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”main-menu”}).objects.3″:{“title”:”Computer Science”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/computer-science/”,”order”:4,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”main-menu”}).objects.4″:{“title”:”Subjects”,”url”:”https://information.google.com/subjects”,”order”:5,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”main-menu”}).objects.5″:{“title”:”Archive”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/archive/”,”order”:6,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”main-menu”})”:{“objects”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”main-menu”}).items.0″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”main-menu”}).items.1″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”main-menu”}).items.2″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”main-menu”}).items.3″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”main-menu”}).items.4″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”main-menu”}).items.5″,”typename”:”MenuItem”}],”__typename”:”Menu”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”}).objects.0″:{“title”:”Weblog”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/abstractions/”,”order”:1,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”}).objects.1″:{“title”:”Q&A”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/qa/”,”order”:2,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”}).objects.2″:{“title”:”Columns”,”url”:”/tag/quantized”,”order”:3,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”}).objects.3″:{“title”:”Puzzles”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/puzzles/”,”order”:4,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”}).objects.4″:{“title”:”Podcasts”,”url”:”/podcasts/”,”order”:5,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”}).objects.5″:{“title”:”Videos”,”url”:”/movies”,”order”:6,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”}).objects.6″:{“title”:”Multimedia”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/multimedia/”,”order”:7,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”}).objects.7″:{“title”:”About Quanta”,”url”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/about/”,”order”:8,”__typename”:”MenuItem”},”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”})”:{“objects”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”}).items.0″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”}).items.1″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”}).items.2″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”}).items.3″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”}).items.4″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”}).items.5″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”}).items.6″,”typename”:”MenuItem”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.menu({“slug”:”secondary-menu”}).items.7″,”typename”:”MenuItem”}],”__typename”:”Menu”},”ROOT_QUERY.getPostPageArchive({“slug”:”machines-learn-better-if-we-teach-them-the-basics-20230201″})”:{“type”:”post”,”meta”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”ROOT_QUERY.getPostPageArchive({“slug”:”machines-learn-better-if-we-teach-them-the-basics-20230201″}).meta”,”typename”:”PageData”},”data”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”Post:122775″,”typename”:”Post”}],”__typename”:”PostPageArchive”},”ROOT_QUERY.getPostPageArchive({“slug”:”machines-learn-better-if-we-teach-them-the-basics-20230201″}).meta”:{“title”:”Machines Learn Better if We Teach Them the Basics | Quanta Magazine”,”max_num_pages”:0,”found_posts”:0,”extra_term”:””,”author”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”Writer:null”,”typename”:”Writer”},”tag”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”Time period:null”,”typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”Time period:null”,”typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”PageData”},”Writer:null”:{“id”:null,”title”:null,”hyperlink”:null,”description”:null,”url”:null,”public_email”:null,”facebook”:null,”twitter”:null,”instagram”:null,”acf”:null,”__typename”:”Writer”},”Time period:null”:{“id”:null,”slug”:null,”title”:null,”hyperlink”:null,”description”:null,”image”:””,”__typename”:”Term”},”Publish:122775″:{“id”:”122775″,”title”:”Machines Learn Better if We Teach Them the Basics”,”excerpt”:”u003cp>A wave of analysis improves reinforcement studying algorithms by pre-training them as in the event that they have been human.u003c/p>n”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/machines-learn-better-if-we-teach-them-the-basics-20230201/”,”slug”:”machines-learn-better-if-we-teach-them-the-basics-20230201″,”disqus”:”122775 https://www.quantamagazine.org/?p=122775″,”date”:”2023-02-01T10:34:01″,”featured_media_image”:null,”authors”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:122775.authors.0″,”typename”:”Author”}],”tags”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:122775.tags.0″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:122775.tags.1″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:122775.tags.2″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:122775.tags.3″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:122775.tags.4″,”typename”:”Term”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:122775.tags.5″,”typename”:”Term”}],”podcast”:null,”acf”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf”,”typename”:”ACFFields”},”__typename”:”Publish”,”status”:”publish”,”content material”:””,”classes”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:false,”id”:”Term:190″,”typename”:”Term”}],”attachments”:null,”series_prev”:null,”series_next”:null,”subsequent”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.subsequent”,”typename”:”PostPageArchive”}},”Publish:122775.authors.0″:{“name”:”Max G. Levy”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/authors/levymax/”,”__typename”:”Writer”,”acf”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.authors.0.acf”,”typename”:”AuthorACF”}},”Publish:122775.tags.0″:{“slug”:”artificial-intelligence”,”__typename”:”Term”,”name”:”artificial intelligence”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/tag/artificial-intelligence/”},”Publish:122775.tags.1″:{“slug”:”computer-science”,”__typename”:”Term”,”name”:”laptop science”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/tag/computer-science/”},”Publish:122775.tags.2″:{“slug”:”deep-learning”,”__typename”:”Term”,”name”:”deep studying”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/tag/deep-learning/”},”Publish:122775.tags.3″:{“slug”:”video games”,”__typename”:”Term”,”name”:”video games”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/tag/video games/”},”Publish:122775.tags.4″:{“slug”:”machine-learning”,”__typename”:”Term”,”name”:”machine studying”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/tag/machine-learning/”},”Publish:122775.tags.5″:{“slug”:”robotics”,”__typename”:”Term”,”name”:”robotics”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/tag/robotics/”},”Publish:122775.acf”:{“featured_block_title”:””,”kicker”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.kicker”,”typename”:”Term”},”featured_image_default”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.featured_image_default”,”typename”:”Image”},”featured_image_square”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.featured_image_square”,”typename”:”Image”},”featured_image_full_width”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.featured_image_full_width”,”typename”:”Image”},”featured_image_gif”:false,”featured_video”:”false”,”full_page_interactive”:false,”podcast_publish_date”:””,”__typename”:”ACFFields”,”interactive_type”:null,”iframe_url”:null,”return_cursor”:null,”exclude_blurb”:null,”interactive_html”:null,”interactive_css”:null,”interactive_js”:null,”interactive_blurb”:null,”related_article”:null,”modules”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:122775.acf.modules.0″,”typename”:”ACFImageComponent”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:122775.acf.modules.1″,”typename”:”ACFContent”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:122775.acf.modules.2″,”typename”:”ACFImageComponent”},{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:122775.acf.modules.3″,”typename”:”ACFContent”}],”template”:”article”,”subtitle”:”A wave of research improves reinforcement learning algorithms by pre-training them as if they were human.”,”title_layout”:”default”,”title_background_type”:null,”title_background_image”:null,”title_background_video”:null,”title_background_attribution”:null,”title_background_image_gif”:null,”title_overlay_enable”:null,”title_overlay_color”:null,”title_overlay_opacity”:null,”title_text_color”:null,”featured_image_attribution”:”u003cp data-pm-slice=”1 1 []”>Jeffrey Fisher for Quanta Magazineu003c/p>n”,”featured_overlay_enable”:”false”,”featured_overlay_color”:null,”featured_overlay_opacity”:null,”sequence”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.sequence”,”typename”:”Term”},”intro_content”:null,”make_image_full_width”:null,”hide_ad_on_post”:false},”Publish:122775.acf.kicker”:{“name”:”artificial intelligence”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/tag/artificial-intelligence/”,”__typename”:”Term”},”Publish:122775.acf.featured_image_default”:{“alt”:”illustration of abstract, boxy-looking robot surrounded by household items such as a knife and a guitar, all of which have labels attached.”,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Default.webp”,”width”:520,”height”:292,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.featured_image_default.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”Publish:122775.acf.featured_image_default.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Default.webp”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Default-160×160.webp”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Default.webp”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Default.webp”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Default.webp”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Default.webp”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”Publish:122775.acf.featured_image_square”:{“alt”:”illustration of abstract, boxy-looking robot surrounded by household items such as a knife and a guitar, all of which have labels attached.”,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Thumbnail.webp”,”width”:300,”height”:300,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.featured_image_square.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”Publish:122775.acf.featured_image_square.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Thumbnail.webp”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Thumbnail-160×160.webp”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Thumbnail.webp”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Thumbnail.webp”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Thumbnail.webp”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Thumbnail.webp”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”Publish:122775.acf.featured_image_full_width”:{“alt”:”illustration of abstract, boxy-looking robot surrounded by household items such as a knife and a guitar, all of which have labels attached.”,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-HP2-scaled.webp”,”width”:2560,”height”:1084,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.featured_image_full_width.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”Publish:122775.acf.featured_image_full_width.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-HP2-520×220.webp”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-HP2-160×160.webp”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-HP2-520×520.webp”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-HP2-1720×729.webp”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-HP2-768×325.webp”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-HP2-scaled.webp”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”Time period:190″:{“id”:”190″,”name”:”Computer Science”,”slug”:”computer-science”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/computer-science/”,”__typename”:”Term”},”Publish:122775.authors.0.acf”:{“tagline”:”Contributing Author”,”avatar”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.authors.0.acf.avatar”,”typename”:”Image”},”__typename”:”AuthorACF”},”Publish:122775.authors.0.acf.avatar”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2021/01/Levy_Max.jpg”,”width”:1000,”height”:1000,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.authors.0.acf.avatar.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”Publish:122775.authors.0.acf.avatar.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2021/01/Levy_Max-520×520.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2021/01/Levy_Max-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2021/01/Levy_Max-520×520.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2021/01/Levy_Max.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2021/01/Levy_Max-768×768.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2021/01/Levy_Max.jpg”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0″:{“hide_this_component”:null,”acf_fc_layout”:”image_component”,”structure”:”large”,”settings”:”large_margin”,”attribution”:”u003cp data-pm-slice=”1 1 []”>Jeffrey Fisher for Quanta Magazineu003c/p>n”,”caption”:””,”mobile_comp_caption”:””,”mobile_comp_attribution”:””,”units”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:122775.acf.modules.0.sets.0″,”typename”:”ImageSet”}],”__typename”:”ACFImageComponent”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0″:{“settings”:””,”image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0.picture”,”typename”:”Image”},”mobile_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0.mobile_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”mobile_side_margins”:false,”mobile_width_constraint”:””,”mobile_caption”:””,”mobile_attribution”:””,”zoom_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0.zoom_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”zoom_caption”:””,”zoom_attribution”:””,”mobile_zoom_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0.mobile_zoom_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”mobile_zoom_caption”:””,”mobile_zoom_attribution”:””,”external_link”:””,”__typename”:”ImageSet”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0.picture”:{“alt”:”illustration of abstract, boxy-looking robot surrounded by household items such as a knife and a guitar, all of which have labels attached.”,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Lede-scaled.webp”,”width”:2560,”height”:1440,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0.picture.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0.picture.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Lede-520×293.webp”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Lede-160×160.webp”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Lede-520×520.webp”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Lede-1720×968.webp”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Lede-768×432.webp”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/MLDesecriptiveLanguage-byJeffreyFisher-Lede-scaled.webp”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0.mobile_image”:{“alt”:null,”caption”:null,”url”:null,”width”:null,”height”:null,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0.mobile_image.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0.mobile_image.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:null,”square_small”:null,”square_large”:null,”medium”:null,”medium_large”:null,”large”:null,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0.zoom_image”:{“alt”:null,”caption”:null,”url”:null,”width”:null,”height”:null,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0.zoom_image.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0.zoom_image.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:null,”square_small”:null,”square_large”:null,”medium”:null,”medium_large”:null,”large”:null,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0.mobile_zoom_image”:{“alt”:null,”caption”:null,”url”:null,”width”:null,”height”:null,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0.mobile_zoom_image.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.0.units.0.mobile_zoom_image.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:null,”square_small”:null,”square_large”:null,”medium”:null,”medium_large”:null,”large”:null,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.1″:{“hide_this_component”:null,”acf_fc_layout”:”content_area”,”show_sidebars”:true,”content material”:”u003cp>Think about that your neighbor calls to ask a favor: May you please feed their pet rabbit some carrot slices? Simple sufficient, you’d suppose. You’ll be able to think about their kitchen, even if you happen to’ve by no means been there — carrots in a fridge, a drawer holding varied knives. It’s summary data: You don’t know what your neighbor’s carrots and knives seem like precisely, however you received’t take a spoon to a cucumber.u003c/p>nu003cp>Synthetic intelligence packages can’t compete. What appears to you want a simple job is a big endeavor for present algorithms.u003c/p>nu003cp>An AI-trained robotic can discover a specified knife and carrot hiding in a well-recognized kitchen, however in a distinct kitchen it should lack the summary expertise to succeed. “They don’t generalize to new environments,” mentioned u003ca href=”https://www.victorzhong.com/”>Victor Zhongu003c/a>, a graduate pupil in laptop science on the College of Washington. The machine fails as a result of there’s merely an excessive amount of to study, and too huge an area to discover.u003c/p>nu003cp>The issue is that these robots — and AI brokers generally — don’t have a basis of ideas to construct on. They don’t know what a knife or a carrot actually is, a lot much less learn how to open a drawer, select one and minimize slices. This limitation is due partly to the truth that many superior AI methods get skilled with a technique referred to as reinforcement studying that’s primarily self-education by way of trial and error. AI brokers skilled with reinforcement studying can execute the job they have been skilled to do very effectively, within the surroundings they have been skilled to do it in. However change the job or the surroundings, and these methods will typically fail.u003c/p>nu003cdiv id=’component-63db4f19231e9′ class=””>u003cscript sort=”text/template”>{“type”:”Article”,”id”:”component-63db4f19231e9″,”data”:{“post”:{“id”:78062,”title”:”Computers Evolve a New Path Toward Human Intelligence”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/computers-evolve-a-new-path-toward-human-intelligence-20191106/”,”date”:”November 6, 2019″,”featured_media_image”:{“url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2019/11/Creative-AI_520x292.jpg”,”width”:520,”height”:292,”sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2019/11/Creative-AI_520x292-520×292.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2019/11/Creative-AI_520x292.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2019/11/Creative-AI_520x292.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2019/11/Creative-AI_520x292.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2019/11/Creative-AI_520x292-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2019/11/Creative-AI_520x292-520×292.jpg”}},”acf”:{“featured_block_title”:””,”featured_image_default”:{“ID”:78174,”id”:78174,”title”:”Creative-AI_520x292″,”filename”:”Creative-AI_520x292.jpg”,”filesize”:59395,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2019/11/Creative-AI_520x292.jpg”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/computers-evolve-a-new-path-toward-human-intelligence-20191106/creative-ai_520x292/”,”alt”:”Illustration of robots evolving out of the mud.”,”author”:”13684″,”description”:”u003ca href=”https://www.kevinhong.com/”>Kevin Hongu003c/a> for Quanta Magazine”,”caption”:””,”name”:”creative-ai_520x292″,”status”:”inherit”,”uploaded_to”:78062,”date”:”2019-11-06 14:18:26″,”modified”:”2019-11-06 14:53:47″,”menu_order”:0,”mime_type”:”image/jpeg”,”type”:”image”,”subtype”:”jpeg”,”icon”:”https://api.quantamagazine.org/wp-includes/images/media/default.png”,”width”:520,”height”:292,”sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2019/11/Creative-AI_520x292-520×292.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2019/11/Creative-AI_520x292.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2019/11/Creative-AI_520x292.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2019/11/Creative-AI_520x292.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2019/11/Creative-AI_520x292-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2019/11/Creative-AI_520x292-520×292.jpg”}},”kicker”:{“name”:”artificial intelligence”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/tag/artificial-intelligence/”}},”authors”:[]}}}u003c/script>u003c/div>nu003cp>To get round this limitation, laptop scientists have begun to show machines necessary ideas earlier than setting them unfastened. It’s like studying a handbook earlier than utilizing new software program: You possibly can attempt to discover with out it, however you’ll study far quicker with it. “Humans learn through a combination of both doing and reading,” mentioned u003ca href=”https://www.cs.princeton.edu/~karthikn/”>Karthik Narasimhanu003c/a>, a pc scientist at Princeton College. “We want machines to do the same.”u003c/p>nu003cp>u003ca href=”https://arxiv.org/abs/2210.00066″>New worku003c/a> from Zhong and others reveals that priming a studying mannequin on this method can supercharge studying in simulated environments, each on-line and in the actual world with robots. And it doesn’t simply make algorithms study quicker — it guides them towards expertise they’d in any other case by no means study. Researchers need these brokers to develop into generalists, able to studying something from chess to procuring to cleansing. And as demonstrations develop into extra sensible, scientists suppose this method may even change how people can work together with robots.u003c/p>nu003cp>“It’s been a pretty big breakthrough,” mentioned Brian Ichter, a analysis scientist in robotics at Google. “It’s pretty unimaginable how far it’s come in a year and a half.”u003c/p>nu003ch2>u003cstrong>Sparse Rewardsu003c/robust>u003c/h2>nu003cp>At first look, machine studying has already been remarkably profitable. Most fashions sometimes use u003ca href=”https://www.quantamagazine.org/computers-evolve-a-new-path-toward-human-intelligence-20191106/”>reinforcement learningu003c/a>, the place algorithms study by getting rewards. They start completely ignorant, however trial and error ultimately turns into trial and triumph. Reinforcement studying brokers can simply grasp easy video games.u003c/p>nu003cp>Take into account the online game Snake, the place gamers management a snake that grows longer because it eats digital apples. You need your snake to eat essentially the most apples, keep inside the boundaries and keep away from operating into its more and more cumbersome physique. Such clear proper and unsuitable outcomes give a well-rewarded machine agent optimistic suggestions, so sufficient makes an attempt can take it from “noob” to Excessive Rating.u003c/p>nu003cp>However suppose the foundations change. Maybe the identical agent should play on a bigger grid and in three dimensions. Whereas a human participant may adapt rapidly, the machine can’t, due to two vital weaknesses. First, the bigger area means it takes longer for the snake to come across apples, and studying slows exponentially when rewards develop into sparse. Second, the brand new dimension offers a completely new expertise, and reinforcement studying struggles to generalize to new challenges.u003c/p>nu003cdiv id=’component-63db4f1927ed8′ class=””>u003cscript sort=”text/template”>{“type”:”Image”,”id”:”component-63db4f1927ed8″,”data”:{“id”:122785,”src”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/VictorZhong2022-byMattHagen-copy.webp”,”alt”:”Victor Zhong in a blue shirt in front of staircases”,”class”:””,”width”:2002,”height”:1629,”mobileSrc”:false,”zoomSrc”:false,”mobileZoomSrc”:false,”align”:”align=”inline””,”wrapper_width”:””,”caption”:”u003cp>Victor Zhong helped machines learn to generalize their knowledge by first priming them with basic information.u003c/p>n”,”attribution”:”u003cp>Matt Hagenu003c/p>n”,”variant”:”shortcode”,”size”:”wide”,”disableZoom”:false,”disableMobileZoom”:false,”srcImage”:{“ID”:122785,”id”:122785,”title”:”VictorZhong2022-byMattHagen copy”,”filename”:”VictorZhong2022-byMattHagen-copy.webp”,”filesize”:233662,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/VictorZhong2022-byMattHagen-copy.webp”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/machines-learn-better-if-we-teach-them-the-basics-20230201/victorzhong2022-bymatthagen-copy/”,”alt”:”Victor Zhong in a blue shirt in front of staircases”,”author”:”42689″,”description”:””,”caption”:””,”name”:”victorzhong2022-bymatthagen-copy”,”status”:”inherit”,”uploaded_to”:122775,”date”:”2023-01-31 21:49:18″,”modified”:”2023-02-01 14:50:09″,”menu_order”:0,”mime_type”:”image/webp”,”type”:”image”,”subtype”:”webp”,”icon”:”https://api.quantamagazine.org/wp-includes/images/media/default.png”,”width”:2002,”height”:1629,”sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/VictorZhong2022-byMattHagen-copy-520×423.webp”,”thumbnail-width”:520,”thumbnail-height”:423,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/VictorZhong2022-byMattHagen-copy-1720×1400.webp”,”medium-width”:1720,”medium-height”:1400,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/VictorZhong2022-byMattHagen-copy-768×625.webp”,”medium_large-width”:768,”medium_large-height”:625,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/VictorZhong2022-byMattHagen-copy.webp”,”large-width”:2002,”large-height”:1629,”1536×1536″:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/VictorZhong2022-byMattHagen-copy-1536×1250.webp”,”1536×1536-width”:1536,”1536×1536-height”:1250,”2048×2048″:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/VictorZhong2022-byMattHagen-copy.webp”,”2048×2048-width”:2002,”2048×2048-height”:1629,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/VictorZhong2022-byMattHagen-copy-160×160.webp”,”square_small-width”:160,”square_small-height”:160,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/VictorZhong2022-byMattHagen-copy-520×520.webp”,”square_large-width”:520,”square_large-height”:520}},”largeForPrint”:true,”externalLink”:””,”original_resolution”:false}}u003c/script>u003c/div>nu003cp>Zhong says we don’t want to simply accept these obstacles. “Why is it that when we want to play chess” — one other sport that reinforcement studying has mastered — “we train a reinforcement learning agent from scratch?” Such approaches are inefficient. The agent wanders round aimlessly till it stumbles upon a great state of affairs, similar to a checkmate, and Zhong says it requires cautious human design to get the agent to know what it means for a state of affairs to be good. “Why do we have to do this when we already have so many books on how to play chess?”u003c/p>nu003cp>Partly, it’s as a result of machines have struggled to know human language and decipher pictures within the first place. For a robotic to finish vision-based duties like discovering and slicing carrots, for instance, it should know what a carrot is — the picture of a factor have to be “grounded” in a extra elementary understanding of what that factor is. Till not too long ago, there was no great way of doing that, however a growth within the pace and scale of language and picture processing has made the brand new successes doable.u003c/p>nu003cp>New u003ca href=”https://www.quantamagazine.org/machines-beat-humans-on-a-reading-test-but-do-they-understand-20191017/”>pure language processingu003c/a> fashions permit machines to primarily study the which means behind phrases and sentences — to floor them in issues on this planet — fairly than simply retailer a easy (and restricted) which means like a digital dictionary.u003c/p>nu003cp>Computer vision has seen an analogous digital explosion. Round 2009, ImageNet debuted as a database of annotated pictures for laptop imaginative and prescient analysis. Right this moment it hosts over 14 million pictures of objects and locations. And packages like OpenAI’s u003ca href=”https://www.quantamagazine.org/the-physics-principle-that-inspired-modern-ai-art-20230105/”>DALLu003c/a>u003ca href=”https://www.quantamagazine.org/the-physics-principle-that-inspired-modern-ai-art-20230105/”>·u003c/a>u003ca href=”https://www.quantamagazine.org/the-physics-principle-that-inspired-modern-ai-art-20230105/”>Eu003c/a> generate new pictures upon command that look human-made, regardless of having no precise comparability to attract from.u003c/p>nu003cp>It reveals how machines solely now have entry to sufficient on-line knowledge to essentially study concerning the world, in line with u003ca href=”https://www.quantamagazine.org/the-ai-researcher-giving-her-field-its-bitter-medicine-20220830/”>Anima Anandkumaru003c/a>, a pc scientist on the California Institute of Know-how and Nvidia. And it’s an indication that they’ll study from ideas as we do and use them for technology. “We are in such a great moment now,” she mentioned. “Because once we can get generation, there is so much more we can do.”u003c/p>nu003ch2>u003cstrong>Gaming the Systemu003c/robust>u003c/h2>nu003cp>Researchers like Zhong determined machines didn’t should embark on their explorations wholly uninformed anymore. Armed with refined language fashions, the researchers may add a pre-training step the place a program realized from on-line info earlier than its trials and errors.u003c/p>nu003cp>To check the concept, he and his colleagues in contrast the pre-training to conventional reinforcement studying in u003ca href=”https://arxiv.org/abs/2110.10661″>5 totally different game-like settingsu003c/a> the place machine brokers interpreted language instructions to resolve issues. Every simulated surroundings challenged the machine agent uniquely. One requested the agent to govern objects in a 3D kitchen; one other required studying textual content to study a exact sequence of actions to battle monsters. However essentially the most difficult setting was an actual sport, the 35-year-old NetHack, the place the aim is to navigate a classy dungeon to retrieve an amulet.u003c/p>nu003cp>For the easy settings, automated pre-training meant merely grounding the necessary ideas: This can be a carrot, that may be a monster. For NetHack, the agent skilled by watching people play, utilizing playthroughs uploaded to the web by human gamers. These playthroughs didn’t even should be that good — the agent solely wanted to construct instinct for a way people behave. The agent wasn’t meant to develop into an knowledgeable, only a common participant. It will construct instinct by watching — what would a human do in a given situation? The agent would determine what strikes have been profitable, formulating its personal carrot and stick.u003c/p>nu003cp>“Through pre-training, we form good priors for how to associate language descriptions with things that are happening in the world,” Zhong mentioned. The agent would play higher from the beginning and study extra rapidly throughout subsequent reinforcement studying.u003c/p>nu003cp>In consequence, the pre-trained agent did outperform the historically skilled one. “We get gains across the board in all five of these environments,” Zhong mentioned. Easier settings solely confirmed a slight edge, however in NetHack’s difficult dungeons, the agent realized many instances quicker and reached a ability stage that the basic method couldn’t. “You might be getting a 10x performance because if you don’t do this, then you just don’t learn a good policy,” he mentioned.u003c/p>nu003cdiv id=’component-63db4f192b625′ class=””>u003cscript sort=”text/template”>{“type”:”Image”,”id”:”component-63db4f192b625″,”data”:{“id”:122787,”src”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/AnimaAnandkumar2022-byMonicaAlmeidaForQM.webp”,”alt”:”Anima Anandkumar standing outside in a red dress”,”class”:””,”width”:1592,”height”:2312,”mobileSrc”:false,”zoomSrc”:false,”mobileZoomSrc”:false,”align”:”align=”proper””,”wrapper_width”:””,”caption”:”u003cp>Anima Anandkumar co-created a virtual agent that learned to play Minecraft by watching videos of humans playing.u003c/p>n”,”attribution”:”u003cp>Monica Almeida for Quanta Magazineu003c/p>n”,”variant”:”shortcode”,”size”:”wide”,”disableZoom”:false,”disableMobileZoom”:false,”srcImage”:{“ID”:122787,”id”:122787,”title”:”AnimaAnandkumar2022-byMonicaAlmeidaForQM”,”filename”:”AnimaAnandkumar2022-byMonicaAlmeidaForQM.webp”,”filesize”:176030,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/AnimaAnandkumar2022-byMonicaAlmeidaForQM.webp”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/machines-learn-better-if-we-teach-them-the-basics-20230201/animaanandkumar2022-bymonicaalmeidaforqm/”,”alt”:”Anima Anandkumar standing outside in a red dress”,”author”:”42689″,”description”:””,”caption”:””,”name”:”animaanandkumar2022-bymonicaalmeidaforqm”,”status”:”inherit”,”uploaded_to”:122775,”date”:”2023-01-31 21:49:23″,”modified”:”2023-02-01 14:50:39″,”menu_order”:0,”mime_type”:”image/webp”,”type”:”image”,”subtype”:”webp”,”icon”:”https://api.quantamagazine.org/wp-includes/images/media/default.png”,”width”:1592,”height”:2312,”sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/AnimaAnandkumar2022-byMonicaAlmeidaForQM-358×520.webp”,”thumbnail-width”:358,”thumbnail-height”:520,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/AnimaAnandkumar2022-byMonicaAlmeidaForQM-1184×1720.webp”,”medium-width”:1184,”medium-height”:1720,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/AnimaAnandkumar2022-byMonicaAlmeidaForQM-768×1115.webp”,”medium_large-width”:768,”medium_large-height”:1115,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/AnimaAnandkumar2022-byMonicaAlmeidaForQM.webp”,”large-width”:1592,”large-height”:2312,”1536×1536″:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/AnimaAnandkumar2022-byMonicaAlmeidaForQM-1058×1536.webp”,”1536×1536-width”:1058,”1536×1536-height”:1536,”2048×2048″:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/AnimaAnandkumar2022-byMonicaAlmeidaForQM-1410×2048.webp”,”2048×2048-width”:1410,”2048×2048-height”:2048,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/AnimaAnandkumar2022-byMonicaAlmeidaForQM-160×160.webp”,”square_small-width”:160,”square_small-height”:160,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2023/02/AnimaAnandkumar2022-byMonicaAlmeidaForQM-520×520.webp”,”square_large-width”:520,”square_large-height”:520}},”largeForPrint”:false,”externalLink”:””,”original_resolution”:false}}u003c/script>u003c/div>nu003cp>“These generalist agents are a big leap from what standard reinforcement learning does,” Anandkumar mentioned.u003c/p>nu003cp>Her workforce additionally pre-trains brokers to get them to study extra rapidly, reaching vital progress on the world’s bestselling online game, Minecraft. It’s often known as a “sandbox” sport, which means it provides gamers a nearly infinite area during which to work together and create new worlds. It’s futile to program a reward operate for hundreds of duties individually, so as an alternative the workforce’s mannequin (“u003ca href=”https://arxiv.org/abs/2206.08853″>MineDojou003c/a>”) constructed its understanding of the sport by watching captioned playthrough movies. No have to codify good conduct.u003c/p>nu003cp>“We are getting automated reward functions,” Anandkumar mentioned. “This is the first benchmark with thousands of tasks and the ability to do reinforcement learning with open-ended tasks specified through text prompts.”u003c/p>nu003ch2>u003cstrong>Past Gamesu003c/robust>u003c/h2>nu003cp>Video games have been a good way to indicate that pre-training fashions may work, however they’re nonetheless simplified worlds. Coaching robots to deal with the actual world, the place the probabilities are virtually infinite, is far more durable. “We asked the question: Is there something in between?” Narasimhan mentioned. So he determined to do some on-line procuring.u003c/p>nu003cp>His workforce created u003ca href=”https://webshop-pnlp.github.io/”>WebShopu003c/a>. “It’s basically like a shopping butler,” Narasimhan mentioned. Customers can say one thing like “Give me a Nike shoe that’s white and under 100, and I want the reviews to state that they’re very comfortable for toddlers,” and this system finds and buys the shoe.u003c/p>nu003cp>As with Zhong’s and Anandkumar’s video games, WebShop developed an instinct by coaching with pictures and textual content, this time from Amazon pages. “Over time, it learns to understand the language and map it to actions it has to take on the website.”u003c/p>nu003cp>At first look, a procuring butler could not appear that futuristic. However whereas a cutting-edge chatbot can hyperlink you to a desired sneaker, interactions like putting the order require an entirely totally different ability set. And although your bedside Alexa or Google Residence audio system can place orders, they depend on proprietary software program that carries out preordained duties. WebShop navigates the online the way in which folks do: by studying, typing and clicking.u003c/p>nu003cp>“It’s a step closer toward general intelligence,” Narasimhan mentioned.u003c/p>n”,”fadein”:false,”__typename”:”ACFContent”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2″:{“hide_this_component”:null,”acf_fc_layout”:”image_component”,”structure”:”common”,”settings”:””,”attribution”:”u003cp>David Kelly Crow/Princeton Universityu003c/p>n”,”caption”:”u003cp>“Humans learn through a combination of both doing and reading. We want machines to do the same,” mentioned Karthik Narasimhan.u003c/p>n”,”mobile_comp_caption”:””,”mobile_comp_attribution”:””,”units”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:122775.acf.modules.2.sets.0″,”typename”:”ImageSet”}],”__typename”:”ACFImageComponent”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0″:{“settings”:””,”image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0.picture”,”typename”:”Image”},”mobile_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0.mobile_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”mobile_side_margins”:false,”mobile_width_constraint”:””,”mobile_caption”:””,”mobile_attribution”:””,”zoom_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0.zoom_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”zoom_caption”:””,”zoom_attribution”:””,”mobile_zoom_image”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0.mobile_zoom_image”,”typename”:”Image”},”mobile_zoom_caption”:””,”mobile_zoom_attribution”:””,”external_link”:””,”__typename”:”ImageSet”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0.picture”:{“alt”:”Karthik Narasimhan in a blue shirt and grey blazer sits in a crimson chair”,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/KarthikNarasimhan2019-byDavidKellyCrow-Princeton.webp”,”width”:2000,”top”:1406,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0.picture.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0.picture.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/KarthikNarasimhan2019-byDavidKellyCrow-Princeton-520×366.webp”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/KarthikNarasimhan2019-byDavidKellyCrow-Princeton-160×160.webp”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/KarthikNarasimhan2019-byDavidKellyCrow-Princeton-520×520.webp”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/KarthikNarasimhan2019-byDavidKellyCrow-Princeton-1720×1209.webp”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/KarthikNarasimhan2019-byDavidKellyCrow-Princeton-768×540.webp”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/02/KarthikNarasimhan2019-byDavidKellyCrow-Princeton.webp”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0.mobile_image”:{“alt”:null,”caption”:null,”url”:null,”width”:null,”height”:null,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0.mobile_image.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0.mobile_image.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:null,”square_small”:null,”square_large”:null,”medium”:null,”medium_large”:null,”large”:null,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0.zoom_image”:{“alt”:null,”caption”:null,”url”:null,”width”:null,”height”:null,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0.zoom_image.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0.zoom_image.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:null,”square_small”:null,”square_large”:null,”medium”:null,”medium_large”:null,”large”:null,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0.mobile_zoom_image”:{“alt”:null,”caption”:null,”url”:null,”width”:null,”height”:null,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0.mobile_zoom_image.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.2.units.0.mobile_zoom_image.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:null,”square_small”:null,”square_large”:null,”medium”:null,”medium_large”:null,”large”:null,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”Publish:122775.acf.modules.3″:{“hide_this_component”:null,”acf_fc_layout”:”content_area”,”show_sidebars”:false,”content material”:”u003cp>In fact, getting robots to work together with the actual world has its personal challenges. Take into account a bottle, for instance. You’ll be able to acknowledge one by its look, you realize it’s meant to retailer liquids, and also you perceive learn how to manipulate it along with your arms. Can actual machines ever flip phrases and pictures into a fancy intelligence of movement?u003c/p>nu003cp>Narasimhan collaborated with u003ca href=”https://mae.princeton.edu/people/faculty/majumdar”>Anirudha Majumdaru003c/a>, a roboticist at Princeton, to search out out. They taught a robotic arm to govern instruments it had by no means seen earlier than, and pre-trained it utilizing descriptive language taken from profitable language fashions. This system realized quicker and carried out higher with virtually each instrument and motion, in comparison with packages studying by conventional exploration, in line with u003ca href=”https://arxiv.org/abs/2206.13074″>resultsu003c/a> posted to the preprint server arxiv.org final June.u003c/p>nu003cp>Engineers have constructed a library of much more advanced instructions at Google’s robotics labs, additionally rooted in context-building pre-training. “The world of possibilities that you have to consider is huge,” mentioned u003ca href=”https://karolhausman.github.io/”>Karol Hausmanu003c/a>, a analysis scientist on the Google robotics workforce. “So we ask the language model to break it down for us.”u003c/p>nu003cp>The workforce labored with a cellular helper robotic, with a seven-jointed arm, which they skilled utilizing language expertise. For any given command — like “help me clean my spilled drink” — this system makes use of a language mannequin to recommend actions from a library of 700 skilled motions, similar to “grab” a paper towel, “pick up” the can, or “throw away” the can. And Hausman says it acknowledges its limitations with phrases similar to “I’m actually not capable of wiping it down. But I can bring you a sponge.” The workforce not too long ago reported outcomes from this undertaking, referred to as u003ca href=”https://say-can.github.io/”>SayCanu003c/a>.u003c/p>nu003cp>One other perk of empowering robots with language fashions is that translating synonyms and phrases in different languages turns into trivial. One individual can say “twist,” whereas one other says “rotate,” and the robotic understands each. “The craziest thing that we have tried is that it also understands emojis,” mentioned u003ca href=”https://fxia22.github.io/”>Fei Xiau003c/a>, a analysis scientist at Google.u003c/p>nu003ch2>u003cstrong>The Bots Are Studying         u003c/robust>u003c/h2>nu003cp>SayCan is maybe essentially the most superior demonstration of language-grounded studying in robotics up to now. And language and picture fashions are consistently enhancing, creating higher and extra advanced pre-training methods.u003c/p>nu003cdiv id=’component-63db4f192feb1′ class=”related-list”>u003cscript sort=”text/template”>{“type”:”LinkList”,”id”:”component-63db4f192feb1″,”data”:{“title”:”Related:”,”class”:”related-list”,”links”:[{“type”:”internal”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/artificial-intelligence-discovers-tool-use-in-hide-and-seek-games-20191118/”,”title”:”Playing Hide-and-Seek, Machines Invent New Tools”},{“type”:”internal”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/why-alphazeros-artificial-intelligence-has-trouble-with-the-real-world-20180221/”,”title”:”Why Artificial Intelligence Like AlphaZero Has Trouble With the Real World”},{“type”:”internal”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/ai-makes-strides-in-virtual-worlds-more-like-our-own-20220624/”,”title”:”By Exploring Virtual Worlds, AI Learns in New Ways”}]}}u003c/script>u003c/div>nu003cp>However Xia is cautious to mood the joy. “Someone half-jokingly said we reached the ‘robot GPT’ moment,” he mentioned, referring to the groundbreaking language fashions that perceive a wide selection of human instructions. “We’re not there yet, and there is much more to be explored.”u003c/p>nu003cp>For example, these fashions can present incorrect solutions or take errant actions, which researchers are attempting to know. Robots additionally haven’t but mastered “u003ca href=”https://www.quantamagazine.org/ai-makes-strides-in-virtual-worlds-more-like-our-own-20220624/”>embodimentu003c/a>”: Whereas people have a bodily instinct constructed on childhoods spent enjoying with toys, robots nonetheless require real-world interactions to develop such a instinct. “For some settings, there are a lot of unlabeled demonstrations,” Zhong mentioned — consider databases of online game interactions like Minecraft and NetHack. No database can rapidly educate robots clever movement.u003c/p>nu003cp>Nonetheless, progress is occurring quick. And extra researchers consider that smarter robotics would be the finish consequence. Narasimhan traces this human-robot evolution from punch playing cards to the following know-how. “We had keyboards and mice and then touch screens,” he mentioned. Grounded language is subsequent. You’ll converse to your laptop for solutions and errands. “This whole dream of assistants being really capable has not happened yet,” he mentioned. “But I think it will happen very soon.”u003c/p>n”,”fadein”:false,”__typename”:”ACFContent”},”Publish:122775.acf.sequence”:{“title”:null,”hyperlink”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”Publish:122775.subsequent.knowledge.0″:{“title”:”When Does the Mind Function at Peak Efficiency?”,”link”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/a-physical-theory-for-when-the-brain-performs-best-20230131/”,”classes”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Post:122775.next.data.0.categories.0″,”typename”:”Term”}],”featured_media_image”:null,”acf”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.subsequent.knowledge.0.acf”,”typename”:”ACFFields”},”__typename”:”Publish”},”Publish:122775.subsequent.knowledge.0.classes.0″:{“slug”:”biology”,”__typename”:”Term”},”Publish:122775.subsequent.knowledge.0.acf”:{“template”:”article”,”featured_block_title”:””,”featured_image_gif”:false,”featured_image_default”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.subsequent.knowledge.0.acf.featured_image_default”,”typename”:”Image”},”featured_image_full_width”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.subsequent.knowledge.0.acf.featured_image_full_width”,”typename”:”Image”},”__typename”:”ACFFields”},”Publish:122775.subsequent.knowledge.0.acf.featured_image_default”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/01/CriticalityVide-byMyriamWares-Default.webp”,”width”:520,”height”:292,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.subsequent.knowledge.0.acf.featured_image_default.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”Publish:122775.subsequent.knowledge.0.acf.featured_image_default.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/01/CriticalityVide-byMyriamWares-Default.webp”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/01/CriticalityVide-byMyriamWares-Default-160×160.webp”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/01/CriticalityVide-byMyriamWares-Default.webp”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/01/CriticalityVide-byMyriamWares-Default.webp”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/01/CriticalityVide-byMyriamWares-Default.webp”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/01/CriticalityVide-byMyriamWares-Default.webp”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”Publish:122775.subsequent.knowledge.0.acf.featured_image_full_width”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/01/CriticalityVide-byMyriamWares-HP-scaled.webp”,”width”:2560,”height”:1084,”sizes”:{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”Publish:122775.subsequent.knowledge.0.acf.featured_image_full_width.sizes”,”typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”Publish:122775.subsequent.knowledge.0.acf.featured_image_full_width.sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/01/CriticalityVide-byMyriamWares-HP-520×220.webp”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/01/CriticalityVide-byMyriamWares-HP-160×160.webp”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/01/CriticalityVide-byMyriamWares-HP-520×520.webp”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/01/CriticalityVide-byMyriamWares-HP-1720×729.webp”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/01/CriticalityVide-byMyriamWares-HP-768×325.webp”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2023/01/CriticalityVide-byMyriamWares-HP-scaled.webp”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”Publish:122775.subsequent”:{“data”:[{“type”:”id”,”generated”:true,”id”:”$Post:122775.next.data.0″,”typename”:”Post”}],”__typename”:”PostPageArchive”}}n”,”settings”:{“socialLinks”:[{“type”:”facebook”,”label”:”Facebook”,”url”:”https://www.facebook.com/QuantaNews”,”__typename”:”SocialMediaLink”},{“type”:”twitter”,”label”:”Twitter”,”url”:”https://twitter.com/QuantaMagazine”,”__typename”:”SocialMediaLink”},{“type”:”youtube”,”label”:”YouTube”,”url”:”https://www.youtube.com/c/QuantaScienceChannel”,”__typename”:”SocialMediaLink”},{“type”:”instagram”,”label”:”Instagram”,”url”:”https://instagram.com/quantamag”,”__typename”:”SocialMediaLink”},{“type”:”rss”,”label”:”RSS”,”url”:”https://api.quantamagazine.org/feed/”,”__typename”:”SocialMediaLink”}],”newsletterAction”:”https://quantamagazine.us1.list-manage.com/subscribe/post?u=0d6ddf7dc1a0b7297c8e06618&id=f0cb61321c”,”newsletterUrl”:”http://us1.campaign-archive2.com/home/?u=0d6ddf7dc1a0b7297c8e06618&id=f0cb61321c”,”sfNotice”:”An editorially independent publication supported by the Simons Foundation.”,”commentsHeader”:”

n”,”channels”:[{“title”:”The Joy of Why”,”slug”:”the-joy-of-why”,”description”:”The mathematician and author Steven Strogatz interviews leading researchers about the great scientific and mathematical questions of our time.”,”featured_image”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1.jpg”,”width”:2560,”height”:1440,”sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1-520×293.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1-520×520.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1-1720×968.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1-768×432.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1.jpg”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”square_image”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600.jpg”,”width”:600,”height”:600,”sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600-520×520.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600-520×520.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600.jpg”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”subscribe_itunes_link”:”https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-joy-of-why/id1608948873″,”subscribe_spotify_link”:”https://open.spotify.com/show/2FoxHraQSKwxV2HgUfwLMp”,”subscribe_android_link”:”https://podcasts.google.com/feed/aHR0cHM6Ly9hcGkucXVhbnRhbWFnYXppbmUub3JnL2ZlZWQvdGhlLWpveS1vZi13aHk”,”subscribe_stitcher_link”:”https://www.stitcher.com/show/the-joy-of-why”,”__typename”:”Channel”},{“title”:”Quanta Science Podcast”,”slug”:”quanta-podcast”,”description”:”Susan Valot narrates in-depth news episodes based on Quanta Magazine’s articles about mathematics, physics, biology and computer science. “,”featured_image”:{“alt”:”A video in which a metallic cube floats above a dark disk as liquid nitrogen evaporates around them”,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/09/Superconductivity-Mystery-Reolved_2880x1620_Lede-scaled.jpg”,”width”:2560,”height”:1440,”sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/09/Superconductivity-Mystery-Reolved_2880x1620_Lede-520×293.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/09/Superconductivity-Mystery-Reolved_2880x1620_Lede-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/09/Superconductivity-Mystery-Reolved_2880x1620_Lede-520×520.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/09/Superconductivity-Mystery-Reolved_2880x1620_Lede-1720×968.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/09/Superconductivity-Mystery-Reolved_2880x1620_Lede-768×432.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/09/Superconductivity-Mystery-Reolved_2880x1620_Lede-scaled.jpg”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”square_image”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000×3000.jpg”,”width”:3000,”height”:3000,”sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000×3000-520×520.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000×3000-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000×3000-520×520.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000×3000-1720×1720.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000×3000-768×768.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000×3000-2880×2880.jpg”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”subscribe_itunes_link”:”https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/quanta-science-podcast/id1021340531?mt=2&ls=1″,”subscribe_spotify_link”:”https://open.spotify.com/show/7oKXOpbHzbICFUcJNbZ5wF?si=jdnj9sTHSD2bj4hDMFLKEA”,”subscribe_android_link”:”https://podcasts.google.com/feed/aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cucXVhbnRhbWFnYXppbmUub3JnL2ZlZWQvcG9kY2FzdC8″,”subscribe_stitcher_link”:”https://www.stitcher.com/podcast/quanta-magazine-2/quanta-magazine-podcast”,”__typename”:”Channel”},{“title”:”The Joy of x”,”slug”:”the-joy-of-x”,”description”:”The acclaimed mathematician and author Steven Strogatz interviews some of the world’s leading scientists about their lives and work.”,”featured_image”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1.jpg”,”width”:1920,”height”:1080,”sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-520×293.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-520×520.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-1720×968.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-768×432.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1.jpg”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”square_image”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600.jpg”,”width”:600,”height”:600,”sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600-520×520.jpg”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600-160×160.jpg”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600-520×520.jpg”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600.jpg”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600.jpg”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600.jpg”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”},”subscribe_itunes_link”:”https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-joy-of-x/id1495067186″,”subscribe_spotify_link”:”https://open.spotify.com/show/5HcCtKPH5gnOjRiMtTdC07?si=lFzCzat9QfuPU3hWuYibxQ”,”subscribe_android_link”:”https://podcasts.google.com/feed/aHR0cHM6Ly9hcGkucXVhbnRhbWFnYXppbmUub3JnL2ZlZWQvdGhlLWpveS1vZi14Lw”,”subscribe_stitcher_link”:”https://www.stitcher.com/podcast/the-joy-of-x”,”__typename”:”Channel”}],”editors”:[{“name”:”Bill Andrews – Senior CS Editor”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Ben Brubaker – Staff CS Writer”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Matt Carlstrom – Senior Engagement Editor”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Jordana Cepelewicz – Senior Math Writer”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Konstantin Kakaes – Senior Math Editor”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Thomas Lin – Editor in Chief”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Michael Moyer – Deputy Editor, Physics, Math, CS”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”John Rennie – Deputy Editor, Biology, Podcasts”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Yasemin Saplakoglu – Staff Biology Writer”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Samuel Velasco – Art Director”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Natalie Wolchover – Senior Physics Editor”,”__typename”:”Editor”},{“name”:”Charlie Wood – Staff Physics Writer”,”__typename”:”Editor”}],”popularSearches”:[{“term”:”math”,”label”:”Mathematics”,”__typename”:”PopularSearch”},{“term”:”physics”,”label”:”Physics”,”__typename”:”PopularSearch”},{“term”:”black holes”,”label”:”Black Holes”,”__typename”:”PopularSearch”},{“term”:”evolution”,”label”:”Evolution”,”__typename”:”PopularSearch”}],”searchTopics”:[{“type”:”Tag”,”label”:”Podcasts”,”tag”:{“name”:”Quanta Podcast”,”slug”:”quanta-podcast”,”term_id”:”552″,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”Tag”,”label”:”Columns”,”tag”:{“name”:”Quantized Columns”,”slug”:”quantized”,”term_id”:”551″,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”Series”,”label”:”Series”,”tag”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”Category”,”label”:”Interviews”,”tag”:{“name”:”Q&A”,”slug”:”qa”,”term_id”:”567″,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:”Q&A”,”slug”:”qa”,”term_id”:”176″,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”Category”,”label”:”Multimedia”,”tag”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:”Multimedia”,”slug”:”multimedia”,”term_id”:”43″,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”Category”,”label”:”Puzzles”,”tag”:{“name”:”puzzles”,”slug”:”puzzles”,”term_id”:”542″,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:”Puzzles”,”slug”:”puzzles”,”term_id”:”546″,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”Category”,”label”:”Blog Posts”,”tag”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:”Abstractions blog”,”slug”:”abstractions”,”term_id”:”619″,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”news”,”label”:”News Articles”,”tag”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”},{“type”:”videos”,”label”:”Videos”,”tag”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”category”:{“name”:null,”slug”:null,”term_id”:null,”__typename”:”Term”},”__typename”:”SearchTopic”}],”searchSections”:[{“name”:”Mathematics”,”slug”:”mathematics”,”term_id”:”188″,”__typename”:”Term”},{“name”:”Physics”,”slug”:”physics”,”term_id”:”189″,”__typename”:”Term”},{“name”:”Biology”,”slug”:”biology”,”term_id”:”191″,”__typename”:”Term”},{“name”:”Computer Science”,”slug”:”computer-science”,”term_id”:”190″,”__typename”:”Term”}],”searchAuthors”:[{“id”:”38171″,”name”:”Adam Becker”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”28087″,”name”:”Adam Mann”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”29794″,”name”:”Alex Kontorovich”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”39302″,”name”:”Alexander Hellemans”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”56″,”name”:”Alla Katsnelson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”47249″,”name”:”Allison Parshall”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”29458″,”name”:”Allison Whitten”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”73″,”name”:”Amanda Gefter”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”39164″,”name”:”Ana Kova”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”59″,”name”:”Andreas von Bubnoff”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”8728″,”name”:”Anil Ananthaswamy”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”11648″,”name”:”Ann Finkbeiner”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”42689″,”name”:”Annie Melchor”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”95″,”name”:”Ariel Bleicher”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”15493″,”name”:”Ashley Smart”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”450″,”name”:”Ashley Yeager”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”36490″,”name”:”Ben Brubaker”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”16315″,”name”:”Bill Andrews”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”2752″,”name”:”Bob Henderson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”15492″,”name”:”Brendan Z. Foster”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”68″,”name”:”Brooke Borel”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”62″,”name”:”Carl Zimmer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”13684″,”name”:”Caroline Lee”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”13691″,”name”:”Caroline Lee”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”50″,”name”:”Carrie Arnold”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”15142″,”name”:”Chanda Prescod-Weinstein”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”8084″,”name”:”Charlie Wood”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”742″,”name”:”Christie Wilcox”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”11543″,”name”:”Claudia Dreifus”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”57″,”name”:”Courtney Humphries”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”7262″,”name”:”Dalmeet Singh Chawla”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”70″,”name”:”Dan Falk”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”19918″,”name”:”Dana Najjar”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”13695″,”name”:”Daniel Garisto”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”32676″,”name”:”Daniel S. Freed”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”13724″,”name”:”David H. Freedman”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”26310″,”name”:”David S. Richeson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”30207″,”name”:”David Tse”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”19266″,”name”:”Devin Powell”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”13251″,”name”:”Diana Kwon”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”17000″,”name”:”Elena Renken”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”17149″,”name”:”Elizabeth Landau”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”5279″,”name”:”Elizabeth Preston”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”58″,”name”:”Elizabeth Svoboda”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”32612″,”name”:”Ellen Horne”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”27534″,”name”:”Emily Buder”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”25173″,”name”:”Emily Levesque”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”64″,”name”:”Emily Singer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”47″,”name”:”Erica Klarreich”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”14784″,”name”:”Erika K. Carlson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”98″,”name”:”Esther Landhuis”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”5830″,”name”:”Eva Silverstein”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”6793″,”name”:”Evelyn Lamb”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”75″,”name”:”Ferris Jabr”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”52″,”name”:”Frank Wilczek”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”69″,”name”:”Gabriel Popkin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”77″,”name”:”George Musser”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”19092″,”name”:”Grant Sanderson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”20557″,”name”:”Howard Lee”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”66″,”name”:”Ingrid Daubechies”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”46418″,”name”:”Ingrid Wickelgren”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”85″,”name”:”Ivan Amato”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”37141″,”name”:”Jake Buehler”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”44758″,”name”:”James Dinneen”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”49403″,”name”:”James R. Riordon”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”12170″,”name”:”Janna Levin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”32″,”name”:”Jeanette Kazmierczak”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”51″,”name”:”Jennifer Ouellette”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”44787″,”name”:”Joanna Thompson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”50541″,”name”:”John M. Beggs”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”72″,”name”:”John Pavlus”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”16475″,”name”:”John Preskill”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”91″,”name”:”John Rennie”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”10351″,”name”:”Jonathan Lambert”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”31716″,”name”:”Jonathan O’Callaghan”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”1241″,”name”:”Jordana Cepelewicz”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”8463″,”name”:”Joshua Roebke”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”49″,”name”:”Joshua Sokol”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”16815″,”name”:”jye”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”67″,”name”:”K.C. Cole”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”37462″,”name”:”Karmela Padavic-Callaghan”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”87″,”name”:”Kat McGowan”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”36139″,”name”:”Katarina Zimmer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”20556″,”name”:”Katherine Harmon Courage”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”90″,”name”:”Katia Moskvitch”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”39551″,”name”:”Katie McCormick”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”27374″,”name”:”Kelsey Houston-Edwards”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”40″,”name”:”Kevin Hartnett”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”47633″,”name”:”Konstantin Kakaes”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”45758″,”name”:”Kristina Armitage”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”38413″,”name”:”Lakshmi Chandrasekaran”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”12570″,”name”:”Laura Poppick”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”38699″,”name”:”Leila Sloman”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”23451″,”name”:”Liam Drew”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”79″,”name”:”Liz Kruesi”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”38″,”name”:”Lucy Reading-Ikkanda”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”47180″,”name”:”Lyndie Chiou”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”60″,”name”:”Maggie McKee”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”2333″,”name”:”Mallory Locklear”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”3569″,”name”:”Marcus Woo”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”414″,”name”:”Mark Kim-Mulgrew”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”20495″,”name”:”Matt Carlstrom”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”47830″,”name”:”Matt von Hippel”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”17147″,”name”:”Matthew Hutson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”30953″,”name”:”Max G. Levy”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”32437″,”name”:”Max Kozlov”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”38705″,”name”:”mcho”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”40613″,”name”:”Melanie Mitchell”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”7186″,”name”:”Melinda Wenner Moyer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”14093″,”name”:”Michael Harris”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”34″,”name”:”Michael Kranz”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”23″,”name”:”Michael Moyer”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”74″,”name”:”Michael Nielsen”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”19093″,”name”:”Michele Bannister”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”1472″,”name”:”Moira Chas”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”6476″,”name”:”Monique Brouillette”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”42264″,”name”:”Mordechai Rorvig”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”10″,”name”:”Natalie Wolchover”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”37605″,”name”:”Nick Thieme”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”43298″,”name”:”Nicole Yunger Halpern”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”37428″,”name”:”Nima Arkani-Hamed”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”19962″,”name”:”Nola Taylor Redd”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”24″,”name”:”Olena Shmahalo”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”1816″,”name”:”Patrick Honner”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”84″,”name”:”Peter Byrne”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”55″,”name”:”Philip Ball”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”31″,”name”:”Pradeep Mutalik”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”24011″,”name”:”Puja Changoiwala”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”100″,”name”:”Quanta Magazine”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”2784″,”name”:”R. Douglas Fields”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”26114″,”name”:”Rachel Crowell”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”9412″,”name”:”Raleigh McElvery”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”820″,”name”:”Ramin Skibba”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”1666″,”name”:”Rebecca Boyle”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”20950″,”name”:”Richard Masland”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”48″,”name”:”Robbert Dijkgraaf”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”80″,”name”:”Roberta Kwok”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”15681″,”name”:”Robin George Andrews”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”24577″,”name”:”Rodrigo Pérez Ortega”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”78″,”name”:”Sabine Hossenfelder”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”23845″,”name”:”Samuel Velasco”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”83″,”name”:”Sarah Lewin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”35441″,”name”:”Scott Aaronson”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”76″,”name”:”Sean B. Carroll”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”15680″,”name”:”Sean Carroll”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”7239″,”name”:”Shannon Hall”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”44197″,”name”:”Sheon Han”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”65″,”name”:”Siobhan Roberts”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”5944″,”name”:”Sophia Chen”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”61″,”name”:”Steph Yin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”63″,”name”:”Stephanie Bucklin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”26311″,”name”:”Stephanie DeMarco”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”71″,”name”:”Stephen Ornes”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”17148″,”name”:”Steve Nadis”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”13356″,”name”:”Steven Strogatz”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”17150″,”name”:”Susan D’Agostino”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”39768″,”name”:”Tamar Lichter Blanks”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”2960″,”name”:”Tara C. Smith”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”14785″,”name”:”Thomas Lewton”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”3″,”name”:”Thomas Lin”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”54″,”name”:”Tim Vernimmen”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”88″,”name”:”Tom Siegfried”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”12964″,”name”:”Vanessa Schipani”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”53″,”name”:”Veronique Greenwood”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”86″,”name”:”Virginia Hughes”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”3244″,”name”:”Viviane Callier”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”89″,”name”:”Wynne Parry”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”15913″,”name”:”XiaoZhi Lim”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”42263″,”name”:”Yasemin Saplakoglu”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”},{“id”:”45757″,”name”:”Zack Savitsky”,”__typename”:”AuthorList”}],”adBehavior”:”everywhere”,”adUrl”:”https://www.quantamagazine.org/podcasts/”,”adAlt”:”Get Entangled”,”adImageHome”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2021/09/2021PodcastAd_Web-Default_260.jpg”,”adImageArticle”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2021/09/2021PodcastAd_Article_160.jpg”,”adImageTablet”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2021/09/2021PodcastAd_Tablet_890.jpg”,”adImageMobile”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2021/09/2021PodcastAd_Web-Default_260.jpg”,”trackingScripts”:”rnrnrnrnrnrnrnrn”},”theme”:{“page”:{“accent”:”#ff8600″,”text”:”#1a1a1a”,”background”:”white”},”header”:{“type”:”default”,”gradient”:{“color”:”white”},”solid”:{“primary”:”#1a1a1a”,”secondary”:”#999999″,”hover”:”#ff8600″},”transparent”:{“primary”:”white”,”secondary”:”white”,”hover”:”#ff8600″}}},”redirect”:null,”fallbackImage”:{“alt”:””,”caption”:””,”url”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2017/04/default.gif”,”width”:1200,”height”:600,”sizes”:{“thumbnail”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2017/04/default-520×260.gif”,”square_small”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2017/04/default-160×160.gif”,”square_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2017/04/default-520×520.gif”,”medium”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2017/04/default.gif”,”medium_large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2017/04/default-768×384.gif”,”large”:”https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2017/04/default.gif”,”__typename”:”ImageSizes”},”__typename”:”Image”}},”modals”:{“loginModal”:false,”signUpModal”:false,”forgotPasswordModal”:false,”resetPasswordModal”:false,”lightboxModal”:false,”callback”:null,”props”:null},”podcast”:{“id”:null,”playing”:false,”duration”:0,”currentTime”:0},”user”:{“loggedIn”:false,”savedArticleIDs”:[],”userEmail”:””,”editor”:false},”comments”:{“open”:false},”cookies”:{“acceptedCookie”:false}},
env: {
APP_URL: ‘https://www.quantamagazine.org’,
NODE_ENV: ‘manufacturing’,
WP_URL: ‘https://api.quantamagazine.org’,
HAS_GOOGLE_ID: true,
HAS_FACEBOOK_ID: true,
},
}


What's Your Reaction?

hate hate
0
hate
confused confused
0
confused
fail fail
0
fail
fun fun
0
fun
geeky geeky
0
geeky
love love
0
love
lol lol
0
lol
omg omg
0
omg
win win
0
win
The Obsessed Guy
Hi, I'm The Obsessed Guy and I am passionate about artificial intelligence. I have spent years studying and working in the field, and I am fascinated by the potential of machine learning, deep learning, and natural language processing. I love exploring how these technologies are being used to solve real-world problems and am always eager to learn more. In my spare time, you can find me tinkering with neural networks and reading about the latest AI research.

0 Comments

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *