Human Brain Networks

Intelligence is the power to accumulate, perceive and apply information and expertise in an effort to adapt to new conditions and remedy issues. It’s a advanced trait that’s influenced by each genetic and environmental elements and might manifest in a range of methods, similar to logical reasoning, problem-solving, creativity, and studying.

Researchers have been working for a few years to understand the connection between mind construction, purposeful connectivity, and intelligence. A latest research gives essentially the most complete understanding up to now of how completely different areas of the mind and neural networks contribute to an individual’s problem-solving capability in a range of contexts, a trait referred to as common intelligence.

The researchers lately revealed their findings within the journal Human Mind Mapping.

The analysis, led by Aron Barbey, a professor of psychology, bioengineering, and neuroscience on the College of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, and first writer Evan Anderson, a researcher for Ball Aerospace and Applied sciences Corp. working on the Air Pressure Analysis Laboratory, employed the method of “connectome-based predictive modeling” to judge 5 theories on how the mind results in intelligence.

Aron Barbey

U. of I. professor Aron Barbey, pictured, and co-author Evan Anderson discovered that considering the options of the entire mind – fairly than specializing in particular person areas or networks – permits essentially the most correct predictions of intelligence. Credit score: Fred Zwicky

“To understand the remarkable cognitive abilities that underlie intelligence, neuroscientists look to their biological foundations in the brain,” Barbey stated. “Modern theories attempt to explain how our capacity for problem-solving is enabled by the brain’s information-processing architecture.”

Evan Anderson

Examine lead writer Evan Anderson. Credit score: L. Brian Stauffer

A organic understanding of these cognitive talents requires “characterizing how individual differences in intelligence and problem-solving ability relate to the underlying architecture and neural mechanisms of brain networks,” Anderson stated.

Traditionally, theories of intelligence centered on localized mind areas such because the prefrontal cortex, which performs a key function in cognitive processes similar to planning, problem-solving, and decision-making. Newer theories emphasize particular mind networks, whereas others look at how completely different networks overlap and work together with each other, Barbey stated. He and Anderson examined these established theories towards their very own “network neuroscience theory,” which posits that intelligence emerges from the worldwide structure of the mind, together with each sturdy and weak connections.

“Strong connections involve highly connected hubs of information-processing that are established when we learn about the world and become adept at solving familiar problems,” Anderson stated. “Weak connections have fewer neural linkages but enable flexibility and adaptive problem-solving.” Collectively, these connections “provide the network architecture that is necessary for solving the diverse problems we encounter in life.”

To check their concepts, the staff recruited a demographically numerous pool of 297 undergraduate college students, first asking every participant to bear a complete battery of exams designed to measure problem-solving expertise and flexibility in numerous contexts. These and equally numerous exams are routinely used to measure common intelligence, Barbey stated.

The researchers subsequent collected resting-state purposeful MRI scans of every participant.

“One of the really interesting properties of the human brain is how it embodies a rich constellation of networks that are active even when we are at rest,” Barbey stated. “These networks create the biological infrastructure of the mind and are thought to be intrinsic properties of the brain.”

These embrace the frontoparietal community, which permits cognitive management and goal-directed decision-making; the dorsal consideration community, which aids in visible and spatial consciousness; and the salience community, which directs consideration to essentially the most related stimuli. Earlier research have proven that the exercise of these and different networks when an individual is awake however not engaged in a process or being attentive to exterior occasions “reliably predicts our cognitive skills and abilities,” Barbey stated.

With the cognitive exams and fMRI knowledge, the researchers have been in a position to consider which theories finest predicted how individuals carried out on the intelligence exams.

“We can systematically investigate how well a theory predicts general intelligence based on the connectivity of brain regions or networks that theory entails,” Anderson stated. “This approach allowed us to directly compare evidence for the neuroscience predictions made by current theories.”

The researchers discovered that considering the options of the entire mind produced essentially the most correct predictions of an individual’s problem-solving aptitude and flexibility. This held true even when accounting for the quantity of mind areas included within the evaluation.

The different theories additionally have been predictive of intelligence, the researchers stated, however the community neuroscience principle outperformed these restricted to localized mind areas or networks in a quantity of respects.

The findings reveal that “global information processing” within the mind is prime to how properly a person overcomes cognitive challenges, Barbey stated.

“Rather than originate from a specific region or network, intelligence appears to emerge from the global architecture of the brain and to reflect the efficiency and flexibility of systemwide network function,” he stated.

Reference: “Investigating cognitive neuroscience theories of human intelligence: A connectome-based predictive modeling approach” by Evan D. Anderson and Aron Ok. Barbey, 20 December 2022, Human Mind Mapping.
DOI: 10.1002/hbm.26164

The research was funded by the Workplace of the Director of Nationwide Intelligence, the Intelligence Superior Analysis Initiatives Exercise, and the Division of Protection, Protection Superior Analysis Initiatives Exercise.



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The Obsessed Guy
Hi, I'm The Obsessed Guy and I am passionate about artificial intelligence. I have spent years studying and working in the field, and I am fascinated by the potential of machine learning, deep learning, and natural language processing. I love exploring how these technologies are being used to solve real-world problems and am always eager to learn more. In my spare time, you can find me tinkering with neural networks and reading about the latest AI research.

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